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Glycobiology ; 32(1): 60-72, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501077


Extensive glycosylation of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus not only shields the major part of it from host immune responses, but glycans at specific sites also act on its conformation dynamics and contribute to efficient host receptor binding, and hence infectivity. As variants of concern arise during the course of the coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic, it is unclear if mutations accumulated within the spike protein would affect its site-specific glycosylation pattern. The Alpha variant derived from the D614G lineage is distinguished from others by having deletion mutations located right within an immunogenic supersite of the spike N-terminal domain (NTD) that make it refractory to most neutralizing antibodies directed against this domain. Despite maintaining an overall similar structural conformation, our mass spectrometry-based site-specific glycosylation analyses of similarly produced spike proteins with and without the D614G and Alpha variant mutations reveal a significant shift in the processing state of N-glycans on one specific NTD site. Its conversion to a higher proportion of complex type structures is indicative of altered spatial accessibility attributable to mutations specific to the Alpha variant that may impact its transmissibility. This and other more subtle changes in glycosylation features detected at other sites provide crucial missing information otherwise not apparent in the available cryogenic electron microscopy-derived structures of the spike protein variants.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycopeptides/chemistry , Mutation , Polysaccharides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carbohydrate Sequence , Datasets as Topic , Glycopeptides/genetics , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Peptide Mapping , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1438-1446, 2020 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833187


Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is an alphacoronavirus that causes a nearly 100% mortality rate without effective treatment. Here we report a 3.3-Å cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the serotype I FIPV spike (S) protein, which is responsible for host recognition and viral entry. Mass spectrometry provided site-specific compositions of densely distributed high-mannose and complex-type N-glycans that account for 1/4 of the total molecular mass; most of the N-glycans could be visualized by cryo-EM. Specifically, the N-glycans that wedge between 2 galectin-like domains within the S1 subunit of FIPV S protein result in a unique propeller-like conformation, underscoring the importance of glycosylation in maintaining protein structures. The cleavage site within the S2 subunit responsible for activation also showed distinct structural features and glycosylation. These structural insights provide a blueprint for a better molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of FIP.

Coronavirus, Feline/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Galectins/chemistry , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mannose/chemistry , Protein Conformation