Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Acta Virol ; 67(1): 91-98, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266313

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the original Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain, several new variants of the virus have emerged. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and the most recent Omicron variants have been introduced during this pandemic. Several methods including, but not restricted to, allele-specific PCR, ligation with rolling circle amplification and real-time PCR with allele-specific probes are able to detect mutations as low as a single nucleotide polymorphism. High-resolution melting curve analysis is ano-ther technique to assess any mutations in a nucleic acid chain. Confirmed samples with SARS-CoV-2 infection were subjected to variant identification using a de novo-designed HRM assay. In order to select for mutations with the highest effect on Tm of the amplicon, deletion mutations of NSP6 (Del 3675-3677), and S1 (Del 144) were chosen for HRM analysis. HRM analysis for the amplicon of the primer set-1 (NSP6) resulted in Tm differences of -0.39°C, +0.4°C, and -0.6°C between Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants, respectively, in comparison to the original Wuhan strain. Moreover, HRM analysis of the amplification performed by primer set-2 (S1) led to Tm differences of +0.32°C, -0.26°C, and +0.24°C between Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants, respectively, in comparison to original Wuhan strain. The test was able to specify each sample to its variant group with more than 90 percent of confidence. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that using a single closed-tube strategy with a HRM-equipped machine, screening new variants of the virus is possible in a fast and reliable way. Keywords: high resolution melting; SARS coronavirus 2; mutation; variant; genotyping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biological Assay , Mutation
2.
Biologicals ; 80: 27-34, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031158

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to scrutinize the expression profile of inflammatory-related genes (IFI-16, NOTCH2, CXCL8, and THBS1) from acute to post-acute stage of this infectious epidemic. The current cross-sectional study consisted of 53 acute-phase COVID-19 patients and 53 healthy individuals between February and March 2021. The extraction of total RNA was performed from PBMC specimens and also expression level of selected genes (IFI-16, NOTCH2, CXCL8, and THBS1) was evaluated by real-time PCR. Subsequently, levels of these factors were re-measured six weeks after the acute phase to determine if the levels of chosen genes returned to normal after the acute phase of COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to test potential of genes as a diagnostic biomarker. The expression levels of inflammatory-related genes were significantly different between healthy and COVID-19 subjects. Besides, a significant higher CXCL8 level was found in the acute-phase COVID-19 compared to post-acute-phase infection which may be able to be considered as a potential biomarker for distinguishing between the acute phases from the post-acute-phase status. Deregulation of the inflammatory-related genes in COVID-19 patients, especially CXCL-8, can be serving as potent biomarkers to manage the COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Inflammation/genetics , Biomarkers , Receptor, Notch2
3.
Viral Immunol ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001187

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to investigate the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1ß, IL2, IL6, IL8, and IL17, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4, IL10, IFNα, and IFNß, as well as relevant key transcription factors (TFs), including GATA3, PU1, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3), BCL6 (B cell lymphoma 6 protein), FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), RORγt, and T-bet (T-box expressed in T cell) in Iranian patients with moderate and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fifty-six patients with COVID-19, and 25 healthy controls (HCs) age and sex matched were investigated. Based on the interim guidance of COVID-19 from the World Health Organization, the patients were classified into 33 moderate and 23 severe patients with COVID-19. The gene expression levels of cytokines and relevant TFs were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The gene expression levels of TFs RoRγ (RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor γ), NF-κB, and T-bet were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with HCs. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of cytokines, including IL2, IFNγ, IL6, TNFα, IL1ß, IL8, and IL17, were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 than HCs. However, there was a significant increase for IL6, TNFα, and IL17 in severe compared with moderate patients with COVID-19. Finally, The Spearman correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive correlation for IL6 and TNFα, IL6 and IL2, IL6, IFNγ, and IL2 and IFNγ. These data suggest that expression of IL6, TNFα, and IL17 as well as the synergic effect of elevated values of IL2 and IFNγ should be considered in the treatment and management of patients with severe COVID-19.

4.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107641, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When a new pathogen, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, appears all novel information can aid in the process of monitoring and in the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of the current study is to elucidate the specific miRNA profile which can act as new biomarkers for distinguishing acute COVID-19 disease from the healthy group and those in the post-acute phase of the COVID-19 disease. METHODS: The expression level of selected miRNAs including let-7b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-146a-3p and miR-155-5p were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients, in both the acute and post-acute COVID-19 phase of the disease and healthy groups, by real-time PCR assays. Specificity and sensitivity of miRNAs was tested by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The expression level of all miRNAs in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than in the healthy group. Therefore, the expression pattern of miR-29a-3p, miR-146a-3p and let-7b-3p in the post-acute COVID-19 phase was significantly different from the acute COVID-19 phase. ROC analyses demonstrated that miR-29a-3p, -155-5p and -146a-3p may serve as the novel biomarker for COVID-19 diagnosis with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, miR-29a-3p, and -146a-3p can maybe act as novel biomarkers for distinguishing acute from post-acute phase of COVID-19 disease. DISCUSSION: The difference in miRNA expression pattern between COVID-19 patients and those in the healthy group, and between acute COVID-19 with post-acute COVID-19, suggested that cellular miRNAs could be used as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 34: 51, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771109

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease from Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, many scientists focused on this infection to find a way to deal with it. Due to the dramatic scientific growth in this field, we conducted a scientometric study to gain a better understanding of the scientific literature on COVID-19. Methods: We extracted all COVID-19 documents indexed in the Scopus from December 1, 2019, to April 1, 2020, without any language limitation and determined their bibliometric characteristics, including document type, open accessibility status, citation counting, H-index, top cited documents, the most productive countries, institutions and journals, international collaboration, the most frequent terms and keywords, journal bibliographic coupling and cocitations. Results: A total of 923 documents on COVID-19 were retrieved, of which 418 were original articles. All documents had received 2551 citations with an average citation of 2.76 per document and an h-index of 23. China ranked first with 348 documents, followed by the United States (n = 160). The Lancet and BMJ Clinical Research Ed published the most documents (each with 74 documents) and 2 institutions (University of Hong Kong and Huazhong University of Science and Technology) ranked first in this regard. In addition, the present study analyzed the top 25 highly-cited documents (those that had received 70% of all citations). Conclusion: This study highlighted the focused subjects on various aspects of COVID-19 literature such as pathogenesis, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and its complications.

7.
Biol Proced Online ; 22: 16, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) that was emerged as a new member of coronaviruses since December 2019 in Wuhan, China and then after was spread in all continentals. Since SARS-CoV-2 has shown about 77.5% similarity to SARS-CoV, the transcriptome and immunological regulations of SARS-CoV-2 was expected to have high percentage of overlap with SARS-CoV. RESULTS: In this study, we applied the single cell transcriptomics data of human bronchial epithelial cells (2B4 cell line) infected with SARS-CoV, which was annotated in the Expression Atlas database to expand this data to COVID-19. In addition, we employed system biology methods including gene ontology (GO) and Reactome pathway analyses to define functional genes and pathways in the infected cells with SARS-CoV. The transcriptomics analysis on the Expression Atlas database revealed that most genes from infected 2B4 cell line with SARS-CoV were downregulated leading to immune system hyperactivation, induction of signaling pathways, and consequently a cytokine storm. In addition, GO:0016192 (vesicle-mediated transport), GO:0006886 (intracellular protein transport), and GO:0006888 (ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport) were shown as top three GOs in the ontology network of infected cells with SARS-CoV. Meanwhile, R-HAS-6807070 (phosphatase and tensin homolog or PTEN regulation) showed the highest association with other Reactome pathways in the network of infected cells with SARS-CoV. PTEN plays a critical role in the activation of dendritic cells, B- and T-cells, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which cooperates with downregulated genes in the promotion of cytokine storm in the COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the high similarity percentage of the transcriptome of SARS-CoV with SARS-CoV-2, the data of immunological regulations, signaling pathways, and proinflammatory cytokines in SARS-CoV infection can be expanded to COVID-19 to have a valid platform for future pharmaceutical and vaccine studies.

8.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(6): 467-475, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-235502

ABSTRACT

After the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commenced across the world. Understanding the Immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 is essential for interrupting viral infectivity and preventing aberrant immune responses before a vaccine can be developed. In this review, we provide the latest insights into the roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) and Ang II receptor-1 (AT1-R) in this disease. Novel therapeutic strategies, including recombinant ACE2, ACE inhibitors, AT1-R blockers, and Ang 1-7 peptides, may prevent or reduce viruses-induced pulmonary, cardiac, and renal injuries. However, more studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of these therapeutics. Furthermore, considering the common role of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway in AT1-R expressed on peripheral tissues and cytokine receptors on the surface of immune cells, potential targeting of this pathway using JAK inhibitors (JAKinibs) is suggested as a promising approach in patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to hospitals. In addition to antiviral therapy, potential ACE2- and AT1-R-inhibiting strategies, and other supportive care, we suggest other potential JAKinibs and novel anti-inflammatory combination therapies that affect the JAK-STAT pathway in patients with COVID-19. Since the combination of MTX and baricitinib leads to outstanding clinical outcomes, the addition of baricitinib to MTX might be a potential strategy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Janus Kinases/genetics , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Purines , Pyrazoles , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL