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1.
Am J Public Health ; : e1-e10, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089549

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To investigate the prevalence, pattern, and socioeconomic risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and 6 months after the pandemic onset among a cohort of Iranian women. Methods. We conducted a population-based IPV survey among 2502 partnered Iranian women aged 18 to 60 years before (n = 2502) and 6 months after (n=2116) the pandemic's onset. We estimated prevalence and incidence of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV, and the odds of different forms of IPV associated with main exposure variables, adjusted for participant relationship factors. Results. Pandemic prevalence of IPV (65.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 63.4%, 67.4%) was higher than prepandemic prevalence (54.2%; 95% CI = 52.2%, 56.3%). At follow-up, the incidence of IPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 22.9%, 28.4%). The highest incidence was in cases of physical and sexual IPV. Women whose partners lost their employment were at significant risk of new exposure to IPV. Highest socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with less physical IPV (odds ratio = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.14). Conclusions. IPV prevalence has risen since the COVID-19 epidemic began with many women who had never experienced IPV now facing it. Unemployment of women or their partners and prepandemic lower socioeconomic status are risk factors of IPV. Monitoring programs should target these populations. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 27, 2022:e1-e10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306839).

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969225

ABSTRACT

Lebanon is a diverse and dynamic nation of six million people that has experienced considerable disruption for the last two decades. The Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, resulted in the displacement of 1.1 million Syrians to Lebanon. Today, Lebanon is the country with the largest per capita number of refugees in the world. In addition, the country experienced a social, economic, and political crisis in 2019 that destabilized the entire society-circumstances that were further complicated by COVID-19 pandemic. With all of the competing calamities in Lebanon, there has been limited scientific investigation into substance use and the risk of HIV infection among the country's population. To address this gap in knowledge, a qualitative rapid situational assessment (RSA) of substance use and risk of HIV infection in and around Beirut, the nation's capital, was conducted. The goal of this analysis is to describe the demographics and drug use patterns of this population, explore their HIV knowledge and risks, and build knowledge about their perceptions of and access to substance use treatment and other social services.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , HIV Infections , Refugees , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Users/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders
3.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 107, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends in a large part on individual and societal actions which is influenced by the quality and salience of the information to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, COVID-19 misinformation has proliferated. To date, no systematic efforts have been made to evaluate interventions that mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. We plan to conduct a scoping review that seeks to fill several of the gaps in the current knowledge of interventions that mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. METHODS: A scoping review focusing on interventions that mitigate COVID-19 misinformation will be conducted. We will search (from January 2020 onwards) MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease Database, WHO Global Index Medicus, and Sociological Abstracts. Gray literature will be identified using Disaster Lit, Google Scholar, Open Science Framework, governmental websites, and preprint servers (e.g., EuropePMC, PsyArXiv, MedRxiv, JMIR Preprints). Study selection will conform to Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual 2020 Methodology for JBI Scoping Reviews. Only English language, original studies will be considered for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. A narrative summary of findings will be conducted. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., content and thematic analysis) methods. DISCUSSION: Original research is urgently needed to design interventions to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation. The planned scoping review will help to address this gap. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATIONS: Systematic Review Registration: Open Science Framework (osf/io/etw9d).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Publications , Review Literature as Topic
4.
IJID Reg ; 1: 20-26, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899783

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a threat to any healthcare system. Vaccine hesitancy can increase infection risk among HCWs and patients, while also impacting the patients' decision to accept the vaccine. Our study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among HCWs in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: Using purposive sampling, UAE HCWs registered in the Abu Dhabi Department of Health (DOH) email database were invited to complete an online questionnaire, between November 2020 and February 2021, to understand COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy, and trust in sources of information. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the associations between demographic factors with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Results: Of the 2832 HCWs who participated in the study, 1963 (69.9%) were aged between 25 and 44 years and 1748 (61.7%) were females. Overall, 2525 (89.2%) of the HCW population said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. HCWs who were 55+ years of age, male, and physicians/surgeons were more likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.2, p = 0.002; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4, p < 0.001; and OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9; p = 0.01, respectively). The most reliable sources for COVID-19 vaccine information were the UAE government (91.6%), healthcare providers (86.8%), health officials (86.3%), and the World Health Organization (WHO; 81.1%). Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was high among the UAE HCW population. Several factors were identified as significant determinants of vaccine acceptance. UAE healthcare authorities can utilize these findings to develop public health messaging campaigns for HCWs to best address COVID-19 vaccine concerns - particularly when the government is vaccinating its general population.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 446, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open online forums like Reddit provide an opportunity to quantitatively examine COVID-19 vaccine perceptions early in the vaccine timeline. We examine COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit following vaccine scientific announcements, in the initial phases of the vaccine timeline. METHODS: We collected all posts on Reddit (reddit.com) from January 1 2020 - December 14 2020 (n=266,840) that contained both COVID-19 and vaccine-related keywords. We used topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence within topics after the release of vaccine trial data. Social network analysis was also conducted to determine the relationship between Reddit communities (subreddits) that shared COVID-19 vaccine posts, and the movement of posts between subreddits. RESULTS: There was an association between a Pfizer press release reporting 90% efficacy and increased discussion on vaccine misinformation. We observed an association between Johnson and Johnson temporarily halting its vaccine trials and reduced misinformation. We found that information skeptical of vaccination was first posted in a subreddit (r/Coronavirus) which favored accurate information and then reposted in subreddits associated with antivaccine beliefs and conspiracy theories (e.g. conspiracy, NoNewNormal). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can inform the development of interventions where individuals determine the accuracy of vaccine information, and communications campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine perceptions, early in the vaccine timeline. Such efforts can increase individual- and population-level awareness of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding vaccines and thereby improve attitudes about vaccines, especially in the early phases of vaccine roll-out. Further research is needed to understand how social media can contribute to COVID-19 vaccination services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Journal of education and health promotion ; 10, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1711014

ABSTRACT

Front-line clinicians and health-care workers need to be educated to provide care in critical situations such as large-scale catastrophes and pandemics. This narrative review is focused on investigating educational strategies in confrontation with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted a literature search in December 2020 through LitCovid, PubMed, ERIC, and Cochrane Library in order to retrieve relevant studies regarding the role of education in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. There were 12 reviewed studies related to this specific subject. The articles selected for this study demonstrated that education and training had a positive impact on the knowledge and attitude of the participants and also the educational interventions, whether they were simulation-based or other formats of training, would be deemed crucial for enhancing participants’ level of perceptions and confidence. Therefore, it is highly recommended that public health policymakers consider this important issue.

7.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e045348, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685579

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks have increased in past years, and there is great public health interest in monitoring attitudes towards vaccination as well as identifying factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Although the WHO declared vaccine hesitancy as one of the top threats to global health in 2019, studies focused on the determinants and extent of vaccine hesitancy in Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are lacking. This scoping review explores the various factors surrounding vaccine hesitancy, including but not limited to geographic, cultural and religious factors, and examines the extent and nature of the existing evidence on this topic. In light of current development of various COVID-19 vaccines, our work seeks to elucidate the barriers to vaccine uptake in specific populations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will be conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Scoping Reviews. It will comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Studies published in English, Arabic and French between January 1998 and December 2020 will be drawn from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus. The search strategy will include terms related to vaccination and vaccine hesitancy in Arab countries in the MENA region. We will also include grey literature on the topic by searching Google and Google Scholar. Studies will be selected according to the Participants-Intervention-Comparators-Outcome model, and all study titles and abstracts will be screened by two reviewers. Disagreements will be resolved with a third reviewer's input. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review is exempted from ethical approval and will be published in a peer-reviewed open-access journal to ensure wide dissemination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Arabs , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
8.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643715

ABSTRACT

Front-line clinicians and health-care workers need to be educated to provide care in critical situations such as large-scale catastrophes and pandemics. This narrative review is focused on investigating educational strategies in confrontation with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted a literature search in December 2020 through LitCovid, PubMed, ERIC, and Cochrane Library in order to retrieve relevant studies regarding the role of education in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. There were 12 reviewed studies related to this specific subject. The articles selected for this study demonstrated that education and training had a positive impact on the knowledge and attitude of the participants and also the educational interventions, whether they were simulation-based or other formats of training, would be deemed crucial for enhancing participants' level of perceptions and confidence. Therefore, it is highly recommended that public health policymakers consider this important issue.

9.
J Health Commun ; 26(12): 846-857, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612315

ABSTRACT

The duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends largely on individual and societal actions which are influenced by the quality and salience of the information to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, COVID-19 misinformation has proliferated. Despite growing attempts to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation, there is still uncertainty regarding the best way to ameliorate the impact of COVID-19 misinformation. To address this gap, the current study uses a meta-analysis to evaluate the relative impact of interventions designed to mitigate COVID-19-related misinformation. We searched multiple databases and gray literature from January 2020 to September 2021. The primary outcome was COVID-19 misinformation belief. We examined study quality and meta-analysis was used to pool data with similar interventions and outcomes. 16 studies were analyzed in the meta-analysis, including data from 33378 individuals. The mean effect size of interventions to mitigate COVID-19 misinformation was positive, but not statistically significant [d = 2.018, 95% CI (-0.14, 4.18), p = .065, k = 16]. We found evidence of publication bias. Interventions were more effective in cases where participants were involved with the topic, and where text-only mitigation was used. The limited focus on non-U.S. studies and marginalized populations is concerning given the greater COVID-19 mortality burden on vulnerable communities globally. The findings of this meta-analysis describe the current state of the literature and prescribe specific recommendations to better address the proliferation of COVID-19 misinformation, providing insights helpful to mitigating pandemic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Addict Behav ; 127: 107213, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a scoping review focused on various forms of substance use amid the pandemic, looking at both the impact of substance use on COVID-19 infection, severity, and vaccine uptake, as well as the impact that COVID-19 has had on substance use treatment and rates. METHODS: A scoping review, compiling both peer-reviewed and grey literature, focusing on substance use and COVID-19 was conducted on September 15, 2020 and again in April 15, 2021 to capture any new studies. Three bibliographic databases (Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, PubMed) and several preprint servers (EuropePMC, bioRxiv, medRxiv, F1000, PeerJ Preprints, PsyArXiv, Research Square) were searched. We included English language original studies only. RESULTS: Of 1564 articles screened in the abstract and title screening phase, we included 111 research studies (peer-reviewed: 98, grey literature: 13) that met inclusion criteria. There was limited research on substance use other than those involving tobacco or alcohol. We noted that individuals engaging in substance use had increased risk for COVID-19 severity, and Black Americans with COVID-19 and who engaged in substance use had worse outcomes than white Americans. There were issues with treatment provision earlier in the pandemic, but increased use of telehealth as the pandemic progressed. COVID-19 anxiety was associated with increased substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our scoping review of studies to date during COVID-19 uncovered notable research gaps namely the need for research efforts on vaccines, COVID-19 concerns such as anxiety and worry, and low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) and under-researched topics within substance use, and to explore the use of qualitative techniques and interventions where appropriate. We also noted that clinicians can screen and treat individuals exhibiting substance use to mitigate effects of the pandemic. FUNDING: Study was funded by the Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University and The Horowitz Foundation for Social Policy. DH was funded by a NIDA grant (R01DA048860). The funding body had no role in the design, analysis, or interpretation of the data in the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Somalia is considered severely underprepared to contain an outbreak of COVID-19, with critical shortages in healthcare personnel and treatment resources. In limited-resource settings such as Somalia, providing healthcare workers with adequate information on COVID-19 is crucial to improve patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study assessed the knowledge of, preparedness for, and perceptions toward COVID-19 prevention and treatment among Somali healthcare workers. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was completed by 364 Somali healthcare workers in summer of 2020 utilizing a convenience sampling method. RESULTS: Participants' most accessed sources of COVID-19 information were from social media (64.8%), official government and international health organization websites (51.1%,), and traditional media sources such as radio, TV, and newspapers (48.1%). A majority of participants demonstrated strong knowledge of treatment of COVID-19, the severity of COVID-19, and the possible outcomes of COVID-19, but only 5 out of 10 symptoms listed were correctly identified by more than 75% of participants. Although participants indicated seeing a median number of 10 patients per week with COVID-19 related symptoms, access to essential medical resources, such as N95 masks (30.2%), facial protective shields (24.5%), and disposable gowns (21.4%), were limited. Moreover, 31.3% agreed that Somalia was in a good position to contain an emerging outbreak of COVID-19. In addition, 40.4% of participants agreed that the Somali government's response to the pandemic was sufficient to protect Somali healthcare professionals. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the need to equip Somali healthcare providers with more information, personal protective equipment, and treatment resources such that they can safely and adequately care for COVID-19 patients and contain the spread of the virus. Social media and traditional news outlets may be effective outlets to communicate information regarding COVID-19 and the Somali government's response to frontline healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Protective Clothing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Somalia/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 286-293, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care workers (HCWs) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and identify: 1) vaccine acceptance barriers; 2) demographic differences; and 3) the most trusted COVID-19 sources of information. METHODS: Between October and December 2020, all registered HCWs in the KSA were emailed a survey questionnaire, using Qualtrics® and Google Forms®, evaluating their acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Of the 23,582 participants surveyed, 15,299 (64.9%) said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine acceptance among HCWs differed by several demographic characteristics, with males (69.7%), Christians (71.9%), and Pakistanis (81.6%) most likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 8,202 (35.1%) who said they would not accept a COVID-19 vaccine, the main reason reported was fear of potential side effects (58.5%). Participants reported health officials (84.6%) as the most reliable source of COVID-19 information. Additionally, participants reported the highest confidence in the KSA Ministry of Health (88.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings provide KSA health care authorities with the information needed to develop public health messaging campaigns for HCWs to best address COVID-19 vaccine concerns-especially as the country prepares to vaccinate its general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044411, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19, prevalence of pre-existing conditions and access to essential resources among residents of internally displaced person (IDP) camps in Somalia, where overcrowded settlements with weakened infrastructure, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities, and limited access to health services make this vulnerable population particularly susceptible to a COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Twelve IDP camps across six areas of the Lower Shabelle region in Somalia. PARTICIPANTS: 401 adult Somali IDP camp residents. RESULTS: The majority of participants were female (86%) and had received no formal education (89%). While 58% reported being in 'good' health, half of the participants reported having one or more pre-existing conditions. Though 77% of respondents reported taking at least one COVID-19 preventative public health measure, respondents reported a lack of access to adequate sanitation, an inability to practice social distancing and nearly universal inability to receive a COVID-19 screening exam. Questions assessing knowledge surrounding COVID-19 prevention and treatment yielded answers of 'I don't know' for roughly 50% of responses. The majority of participants were not familiar with basic information about the virus or confident that they could receive medical services if infected. 185 (47%) respondents indicated that camp living conditions needed to change to prevent the spread of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This study highlights low levels of COVID-19 knowledge and limited access to essential prevention and treatment resources among individuals living in Somali IDP camps. A massive influx of additional resources is required to adequately address COVID-19 in Somalia, starting with codesigning interventions to educate those individuals most vulnerable to infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , Preexisting Condition Coverage , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Somalia
14.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 48, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is creating severe issues for healthcare and broad social structures, exposing societal vulnerabilities. Among the populations affected by COVID-19 are people engaged in substance use, such as people who smoke; vape (e-cigarette use); use opioids, cannabis, alcohol, or psychoactive prescription drugs; or have a substance use disorder (SUD). Monitoring substance use and SUD during the pandemic is essential, as people who engage in substance use or present with SUD are at greater risk for COVID-19, and the economic and social changes resulting from the pandemic may aggravate SUD. There have been several reviews focused on COVID-19 in relation to substance use and SUD. Reviews generally did not consider on a large range of substance use variants or SUDs. We plan a scoping review that seeks to fill gaps in our current understanding of substance use and SUD, in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: A scoping review focused on substance use and SUD, in relation to COVID-19, will be conducted. We will search (from January 2020 onwards) Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Africa-Wide Information, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Global Health, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease Database, WHO Global Index Medicus, PsycINFO, PubMed, Middle Eastern Central Asian Studies, CINAHL Complete, and Sociological Abstracts. Grey literature will be identified using Disaster Lit, Google Scholar, HSRProj, governmental websites, and clinical trials registries (e.g., ClinicalTrial.gov , World Health Organization, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and International Standard Randomized Con-trolled Trial Number registry). Study selection will conform to Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual 2015 Methodology for JBI Scoping Reviews. Only English language, original studies investigating substance use and SUD, in relation to COVID-19 in all populations and settings, will be considered for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. A narrative summary of findings will be conducted. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., content and thematic analysis) methods. DISCUSSION: Original research is urgently needed to mitigate the risks of COVID-19 on substance use and SUD. The planned scoping review will help to address this gap. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (osf/io/tzgm5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs , Opioid-Related Disorders , Smoking , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Vaping
15.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024561

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the contextual factors associated with the knowledge, perceptions, and the willingness of frontline healthcare workers (FHWs) to work during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal among a total of 1051 FHWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify independent associations between predictors and outcome variables. Of the total study subjects, 17.2% reported inadequate knowledge on COVID-19, 63.6% reported that they perceived the government response as unsatisfactory, and 35.9% showed an unwillingness to work during the pandemic. Our analyses demonstrated that FHWs at local public health facilities, pharmacists, Ayurvedic health workers (HWs), and those with chronic diseases were less likely, and male FHWs were more likely, to have adequate knowledge of COVID-19. Likewise, nurses/midwives, public health workers, FHWs from Karnali and Far-West provinces, and those who had adequate knowledge of COVID-19 were more likely to have satisfactory perceptions towards the government response. Further, FHWs-paramedics, nurse/midwives, public health workers, laboratory workers-FHWs from Karnali Province and Far-West Province, and those with satisfactory perceptions of government responses to COVID-19 were predictors of willingness to work during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest that prompt actions are required to improve FHWs' knowledge of COVID-19, address negative perceptions of government responses, and motivate them through specific measures to provide healthcare services during the pandemic.

16.
Glob Public Health ; 16(1): 136-148, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894505

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a new virus named SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China, provoking coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19. Self-isolation and quarantine as key strategies to overcoming the spread of the disease have had major, micro, and macroscopic consequences. This commentary, therefore, seeks to review critical factors impacting the COVID-19 pandemic through the spectrum of levels, categorising effects in the WHO's ecological framework (individual, relational, community, and societal aspects). We further describe the management of the crisis at each level to help guide health personnel, communities, governments, and international policymakers in understanding how their actions fit into a larger picture as they seek to manage the crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Practice , World Health Organization , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
17.
Confl Health ; 14: 64, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751184

ABSTRACT

Refugees and internally displaced persons in humanitarian settings are particularly susceptible to the spread of infectious illnesses such as COVID-19 due to overcrowding and inadequate access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities. Countries facing conflict or humanitarian emergencies often have damaged or fragmented health systems and little to no capacity to test, isolate, and treat COVID-19 cases. Without a plan to address COVID-19 in humanitarian settings, host governments, aid agencies, and international organizations risk prolonging the spread of the virus across borders, threatening global health security, and devastating vulnerable populations. Stakeholders must coordinate a multifaceted response to address COVID-19 in humanitarian settings that incorporates appropriate communication of risks, sets forth resource-stratified guidelines for the use of limited testing, provides resources to treat affected patients, and engages displaced populations.

18.
Frontiers in Physics ; 8, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-725455

ABSTRACT

Iran has been the country most affected by the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in the Middle East. With a relatively high case fatality ratio and limited testing capacity, the number of confirmed cases reported is suspected to suffer from significant underreporting. Therefore, understanding the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and assessing the effectiveness of the interventions that have taken place in Iran while accounting for the uncertain level of underreporting is of critical importance. In this paper, we developed a compartmental transmission model to estimate the time-dependent effective reproduction number since the beginning of the outbreak in Iran. We associate the variations in the effective reproduction number with a timeline of interventions and national events. The estimation method accounts for the underreporting due to low case ascertainment. Our estimates of the effective reproduction number ranged from 0.66 to 1.73 between February and April 2020, with a median of 1.16. We estimate a reduction in the effective reproduction number during this period, from 1.73 (95% CI 1.60-1.87) on 1 March 2020 to 0.69 (95% CI 0.68-0.70) on 15 April 2020, due to various non-pharmaceutical interventions. The series of non-pharmaceutical interventions and the public compliance that took place in Iran are found to be effective in slowing down the speed of the spread of COVID-19. However, we argue that if the impact of underreporting is overlooked, the estimated transmission and control dynamics could mislead public health decisions, policy makers, and the general public.

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