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1.
Dialogues in Health ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046377

ABSTRACT

Adherence to national physical activity guidelines among youth ages 6-11 in the United States is low. The emergence of COVID-19 and the public health measures implemented in response may have decreased children’s physical activity even further. We conducted an online survey among parents of students attending Columbus Elementary School in Columbus, New Mexico, a rural community on the US-Mexico border, to assess changes in children’s physical activity and screen time use from summer 2019 to summer 2020. We also sought to identify important covariates. All parents (N = 55) and children (N = 87) identified as Hispanic;most parents were born in Mexico, while most children were born in the United States. Most parents (79.3%) reported a decrease in their children’s physical activity from 2019 to 2020, and the vast majority of these parents reported that the changes were due to COVID-19 home confinement. The mean number of days children were physically active for >60 minutes significantly decreased, while daily screen time use increased. Having parents born in Mexico, infrequent family meals (<3/week), and not having community spaces for physical activity close by protected children from decreases in their level of physical activity from 2019 to 2020. Home-based exercise may serve as a suitable method of physical activity when public health responses to COVID-19 restrict community spaces. Future interventions should also be mindful of the role that parental nativity and related cultural factors may play in children’s physical activity levels.

2.
Brain Sci ; 12(9)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997519

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the mental health impact of having a family member or friend infected with COVID-19. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive national assessment of the psychological impact of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, or death among family members and friends. A multi-item valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online to recruit adults in the U.S. A total of 2797 adult Americans without a history of COVID-19 infection participated in the study and reported that they had a family member or friend infected with (54%), hospitalized due to (48%), or die (36%) of COVID-19 infection. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both (i.e., psychological distress) were statistically significantly higher among those who had family members/friends infected, hospitalized, or die due to COVID-19. Also, this study found that the greater the number of family members/friends affected by COVID-19, or the more severe the COVID-19 infection outcome (i.e., hospitalization vs. death), the higher the odds of symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. There is an urgent need to develop educational interventions and implement policy measures that address the growing mental health needs of this subgroup of the population that was not infected but indirectly affected by COVID-19 infections among social networks.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869845

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the proven benefits of vaccinations outweighing the potential risks, hesitancy to accept vaccines and additional doses remains a persistent problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate hesitancy, confidence, literacy, and the role of the multi-theory model (MTM) constructs in COVID-19 booster uptake. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a 52-item psychometric valid web-based survey conducted during the month of October 2021 to recruit a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Among the booster hesitant group (n = 209, 41.7%), a significantly larger proportion of respondents were unvaccinated with the primary series (43.5% vs. 11%, p < 0.001), were among 18-44 years age group (51.2% vs. 31.8%, p < 0.001), single or never married (33.0% vs. 24.3%, p = 0.04), had lower education with some high school (6.2% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03), and identified themselves as Republicans (31.6% vs. 20.5%, p = 0.01). The hesitant group had lower mean scores of vaccine literacy, and vaccine confidence, and had 19% lower odds of behavioral confidence than their non-hesitant counterparts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92). Conclusions: The findings of this study underscore the need of raising public awareness through effective multi-theory-model-based communication campaigns.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725657

ABSTRACT

Iran has faced one of the worst COVID-19 outbreaks in the world, and no studies to date have examined COVID-19-related stress in the general Iranian population. In this first population-based study, a web-based survey was conducted during the peak of the outbreak to assess stress and its correlates in the Iranian population. A 54-item, valid, and reliable questionnaire, including items on demographic characteristics and past medical history, stress levels, awareness about signs and symptoms of COVID-19, knowledge about at-risk groups and prevention methods, knowledge about transmission methods, trust in sources of information, and availability of facemasks and sanitizers, was deployed via social and mass media networks. A total of 3787 Iranians participated in the study where the majority of the participants were females (67.4%), employed (56.1%), from developed provinces (81.6%), without chronic diseases (66.6%), and with ≥13 years of formal education (87.9%). The mean age of study participants was 34.9 years (range = 12-73), and the average stress score was 3.33 (SD = ±1.02). Stress score was significantly higher for females, those who were 30-39 years old, housewives, those with chronic diseases, individuals who were aware that there is no vaccine to prevent COVID-19, those who could not get facemasks or sanitizers, and individuals with higher knowledge about at-risk groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation of stress scores with knowledge about prevention methods for COVID-19 (r = 0.21, p = 0.01) and trust in sources of information about COVID-19 (r = -0.18, p = 0.01). All of the predictors, except knowledge of two important at-risk groups and education, had a significant effect on stress scores based on a multivariate regression model. The COVID-19 outbreak could increase stress among all population groups, with certain groups at higher risk. In the high-risk groups and based on experience with previous pandemics, interventions are needed to prevent long-term psychological effects. Professional support and family-centered programs should be a part of pandemic mitigation-related policymaking and public health practices.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. AIMS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. RESULTS: A total of 3,473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight (40%) before the pandemic. Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home; and time since last bodyweight check. CONCLUSIONS: Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Weight Gain/physiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667381

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy has become a major concern around the world. Recent reports have also highlighted COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. Despite media reports and scientific publications, little is known about the extent and predictors of COVID-19 vaccination refusal among nurses. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess COVID-19 vaccine refusal rates among nurses globally and to explore the reasons for refusal and factors associated with the uptake of the vaccines. A scoping review of the published literature was conducted, and a final pool of 51 studies (n = 41,098 nurses) from 36 countries was included in this review. The overall pooled prevalence rate of COVID-19 vaccine refusal among 41,098 nurses worldwide was 20.7% (95% CI = 16.5-27%). The rates of vaccination refusal were higher from March 2020-December 2020 compared to the rates from January 2021-May 2021. The major reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal were concerns about vaccine safety, side effects, and efficacy; misinformation and lack of knowledge; and mistrust in experts, authorities, or pharmaceutical companies. The major factors associated with acceptance of the vaccines were: male sex, older age, and flu vaccination history. Evidence-based strategies should be implemented in healthcare systems worldwide to increase the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among nurses to ensure their safety and the safety of their patients and community members.

9.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615210

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. Aims and methods The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. Results A total of 3473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight before the pandemic (40%). Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home;and time since last bodyweight check. Conclusions Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.

11.
Psychiatry International ; 2(4):402-409, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1502492

ABSTRACT

Despite the extensive usage of the internet, little is known about internet addiction among Americans during the pandemic. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via MTurk to recruit a national sample of adult Americans to understand the nature and extent of internet addiction. A total of 1305 individuals participated in the study where the majority were males (64%), whites (78%), non-Hispanic (70%), married (72%), 18–35 years old (57%), employed full time (86%), and with a Bachelor’s degree or higher (83%). The prevalence of internet addiction was distributed as no addiction (45%), probable addiction or risk of addiction (41%), and definite or severe addiction (14%). More than a fourth of the population had depression (28%) or anxiety (25%). Despite adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, definite/severe internet addiction was strongly predictive of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in multiple regression analyses. Those who were probably addicted or at risk of addiction were also more likely to have depression or anxiety. Compared to estimates before the pandemic, this study suggests an increase in internet addiction among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Population-based interventions and mental health promotion strategies should focus on a reduction in internet consumption and screen time.

12.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 18: 100375, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few COVID-19 vaccines were anticipated in India in early 2021. However, little was known about COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among the public. We conducted a nationwide study to understand the public's perception about COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020. METHOD: An online survey was deployed using a multi-item validated questionnaire via social media websites and networking platforms for adults in India. We asked participants about vaccination willingness, concerns about vaccination, and their sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Nationwide, 1638 participants from 27 states/union territories took the survey where the majority of the participant were males (55%), 18-30 years old (52%), urban dwellers (69%), college-educated (81%), without a history of COVID-19 infection (92%). More than a fifth were either unaware of the vaccines (20.63%) or were not sure if they will get the vaccine (27%), and 10% refused to obtain the vaccine. Almost 70% of the population had concerns regarding the vaccines. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in awareness about vaccine and acceptability were observed based on age, educational qualifications, and employment status. CONCLUSION: While the majority of Indians would accept the vaccine, given the large population of India, even a small proportion of hesitant individuals would translate to millions of unvaccinated individuals. Strategic measures and policy decisions to enhance the rate of COVID-19 vaccination should be continuously planned and implemented in India.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403602

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among family and friends on vaccination preferences is not well explored. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk to recruit a national random sample of adult Americans to understand COVID-19 vaccination preferences and its relationship with COVID-19 infection in social networks. A total of 1602 individuals participated in the study where the majority had taken at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (79%) and almost a tenth were planning to do so (10%) or did not want to take the vaccine (11%). Compared to those who knew family members or friends affected by COVID-19, those who did not know anyone infected with (AOR = 3.20), hospitalized for (AOR = 3.60), or died of COVID-19 (AOR = 2.97) had statistically significantly higher odds of refusing the vaccines. Most strategies for reducing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy focus on highlighting the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines. We suggest that the dangers of not getting the vaccine should also be emphasized as many people who do not know someone who was affected with COVID-19 are also hesitant towards vaccination. These individuals may not fully appreciate the morbidity and mortality impact of COVID-19 infections and the messaging can be tailored to highlight the risk of not having vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , Vaccination
16.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 15: 100277, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240199

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines were approved for use in the general American public by late 2020 and early 2021. Media reports started highlighting COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in racial and ethnic minorities. However, little is known about the extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in racial and ethnic minorities and whether there are unique sociodemographic and cognitive correlates associated with vaccine hesitancy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review all nationwide studies on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among African-Americans and Hispanics (the largest minority groups in the U.S.). A comprehensive review of the published literature was conducted to search for national studies and a final pool of 13 studies (n â€‹= â€‹107,841 participants) was included in this review. The overall pooled prevalence rate of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy for adult Americans across all studies was 26.3% (95%Ci â€‹= â€‹17.3-36.4). In contrast, the overall pooled prevalence rate of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy for African-Americans was 41.6% (95%Ci â€‹= â€‹34.4-48.9) and for Hispanics, it was 30.2% (95%Ci â€‹= â€‹23.2-37.7). The major predictors of vaccine hesitancy in African-Americans and Hispanics were: sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, income, education, and household size); medical mistrust and history of racial discrimination; exposure to myths and misinformation, perceived risk of getting infected with COVID-19; beliefs about vaccines and past vaccine compliance, and concerns about the safety, efficacy, and side effects from the COVID-19 vaccines. Given the high COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rates in racial/ethnic minorities and the unique factors associated with vaccine hesitancy in African-Americans and Hispanics, several clinic-based and community-oriented practice recommendations have been included in this article.

17.
J Community Health ; 46(6): 1244-1251, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193150

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines were approved in late 2020 and early 2021 for public use in countries across the world. Several studies have now highlighted COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the general public. However, little is known about the nature and extent of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers worldwide. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive worldwide assessment of published evidence on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers. A scoping review method was adopted to include a final pool of 35 studies in this review with study sample size ranges from n = 123 to 16,158 (average = 2185 participants per study). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy worldwide in healthcare workers ranged from 4.3 to 72% (average = 22.51% across all studies with 76,471 participants). The majority of the studies found concerns about vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential side effects as top reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers. The majority of the studies also found that individuals who were males, of older age, and doctoral degree holders (i.e., physicians) were more likely to accept COVID-19 vaccines. Factors such as the higher perceived risk of getting infected with COVID-19, direct care for patients, and history of influenza vaccination were also found to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake probability. Given the high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in healthcare workers, communication and education strategies along with mandates for clinical workers should be considered to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake in these individuals. Healthcare workers have a key role in reducing the burden of the pandemic, role modeling for preventive behaviors, and also, helping vaccinate others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 12: 100213, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051477
19.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): 246-253, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health impact of the pandemic after the initial lockdowns has not been well studied in the USA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic national assessment of the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the adult US population. METHODS: A multi-item, valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk and social media sites to recruit adult US participants in the general population across the USA. A total of 1978 individuals participated in the study, where the majority were: females (51%), whites (74%), non-Hispanic (81%), married (56%), employed full time (68%) and with a bachelor's degree or higher (78%). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (39%), anxiety (42%) and psychological distress (39%) were computed from the PHQ-4 scale. In multiple regression analyses, depression, anxiety and psychological distress burden (assessed by PHQ-4 scale) was predicted significantly based on race, ethnicity, age, having children at home, employment as a healthcare worker, annual household income and area of residence. Males were more likely to have depression, and females were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety, interdisciplinary and multisectoral approaches are recommended in the USA along with population-based interventions on mental health improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
20.
Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ ; 10(4): 950-956, 2020 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011444

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of people worldwide. In this study, we assessed the burden of stress during the pandemic and its relationship with eating practices in a national random sample of American adults. Data were collected using an online survey and the participants were asked about their demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and eating practices in April 2020. Compared to their counterparts, average stress scores were statistically significantly higher for racial and ethnic minority individuals, those who were employed part-time, were single, lived in the Midwest, and were ≤35 years of age. More than one-tenth of the participants reported practicing more unhealthy eating practices during the pandemic lockdowns: fasting (16%), restricting eating (20%), skipping meals (25%), and overeating (39%). Concerning the overall perception of diet, nearly a third reported that their diet had worsened during the pandemic (31%). In adjusted and unadjusted analyses after controlling for demographic characteristics, stress scores were statistically significantly higher for those engaging in unhealthy eating practices and those who reported that their diet had worsened. Policymakers and public health practitioners should redouble their efforts in preventing morbidity and premature mortality by implementing interventions that address the multiple detrimental stressors of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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