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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(12): 890-900, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106223

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected certain groups, such as older people (ie, >65 years), minority ethnic populations, and people with specific chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and some respiratory diseases. There is now evidence of not only direct but also indirect adverse effects of COVID-19 in people with diabetes. Recurrent lockdowns and public health measures throughout the pandemic have restricted access to routine diabetes care, limiting new diagnoses, and affecting self-management, routine follow-ups, and access to medications, as well as affecting lifestyle behaviours and emotional wellbeing globally. Pre-pandemic studies have shown that short-term delays in delivery of routine care, even by 12 months, are associated with adverse effects on risk factor control and worse microvascular, macrovascular, and mortality outcomes in people with diabetes. Disruptions within the short-to-medium term due to natural disasters also result in worse diabetes outcomes. However, the true magnitude of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on long-term outcomes and mortality in people with diabetes is still unclear. Disasters tend to exacerbate existing health disparities; as we recover ambulatory diabetes services in the aftermath of the pandemic, there is an opportunity to prioritise those with the greatest need, and to target resources and interventions aimed at improving outcomes and reducing inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Disasters , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
2.
Circulation ; 146(12): 892-906, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a prothrombotic state, but long-term effects of COVID-19 on incidence of vascular diseases are unclear. METHODS: We studied vascular diseases after COVID-19 diagnosis in population-wide anonymized linked English and Welsh electronic health records from January 1 to December 7, 2020. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios comparing the incidence of arterial thromboses and venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) after diagnosis of COVID-19 with the incidence in people without a COVID-19 diagnosis. We conducted subgroup analyses by COVID-19 severity, demographic characteristics, and previous history. RESULTS: Among 48 million adults, 125 985 were hospitalized and 1 319 789 were not hospitalized within 28 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. In England, there were 260 279 first arterial thromboses and 59 421 first VTEs during 41.6 million person-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios for first arterial thrombosis after COVID-19 diagnosis compared with no COVID-19 diagnosis declined from 21.7 (95% CI, 21.0-22.4) in week 1 after COVID-19 diagnosis to 1.34 (95% CI, 1.21-1.48) during weeks 27 to 49. Adjusted hazard ratios for first VTE after COVID-19 diagnosis declined from 33.2 (95% CI, 31.3-35.2) in week 1 to 1.80 (95% CI, 1.50-2.17) during weeks 27 to 49. Adjusted hazard ratios were higher, for longer after diagnosis, after hospitalized versus nonhospitalized COVID-19, among Black or Asian versus White people, and among people without versus with a previous event. The estimated whole-population increases in risk of arterial thromboses and VTEs 49 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis were 0.5% and 0.25%, respectively, corresponding to 7200 and 3500 additional events, respectively, after 1.4 million COVID-19 diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: High relative incidence of vascular events soon after COVID-19 diagnosis declines more rapidly for arterial thromboses than VTEs. However, incidence remains elevated up to 49 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. These results support policies to prevent severe COVID-19 by means of COVID-19 vaccines, early review after discharge, risk factor control, and use of secondary preventive agents in high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Vascular Diseases , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 216, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether pre-existing macrovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease) are associated with health outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted cohort studies of adults with pre-existing diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in the UK, France, and Spain during the early phase of the pandemic (between March 2020-October 2020). Logistic regression models adjusted for demographic factors and other comorbidities were used to determine associations between previous macrovascular disease and relevant clinical outcomes: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) during the hospitalization. Output from individual logistic regression models for each cohort was combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 4,106 (60.4%) individuals. Of these, 1,652 (40.2%) had any prior macrovascular disease of whom 28.5% of patients died. Mortality was higher for people with compared to those without previous macrovascular disease (37.7% vs 22.4%). The combined crude odds ratio (OR) for previous macrovascular disease and mortality for all four cohorts was 2.12 (95% CI 1.83-2.45 with an I2 of 60%, reduced after adjustments for age, sex, type of diabetes, hypertension, microvascular disease, ethnicity, and BMI to adjusted OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.29-1.81]) for the three cohorts. Further analysis revealed that ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were the main contributors of adverse outcomes. However, proportions of people admitted to ICU (adjOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.31-0.75], I2 60%) and the use of IMV during hospitalization (adjOR 0.52 [95% CI 0.40-0.68], I2 37%) were significantly lower for people with previous macrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: This large multinational study of people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 demonstrates that previous macrovascular disease is associated with higher mortality and lower proportions admitted to ICU and treated with IMV during hospitalization suggesting selective admission criteria. Our findings highlight the importance correctly assess the prognosis and intensive monitoring in this high-risk group of patients and emphasize the need to design specific public health programs aimed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Myocardial Ischemia , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 386, 2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 may be needed to maintain immunity in 'at-risk' populations, which include healthcare workers (HCWs). However, little is known about the proportion of HCWs who might be hesitant about receiving a hypothetical regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or the factors associated with this hesitancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data collected as part of UK-REACH, a nationwide, longitudinal cohort study of HCWs. The outcome measure was binary, either a participant indicated they would definitely accept regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination if recommended or they indicated some degree of hesitancy regarding acceptance (probably accept or less likely). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with hesitancy for receiving regular vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 5454 HCWs were included in the analysed cohort, 23.5% of whom were hesitant about regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Black HCWs were more likely to be hesitant than White HCWs (aOR 2.60, 95%CI 1.80-3.72) as were those who reported a previous episode of COVID-19 (1.33, 1.13-1.57 [vs those who tested negative]). Those who received influenza vaccination in the previous two seasons were over five times less likely to report hesitancy for regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination than those not vaccinated against influenza in either season (0.18, 0.14-0.21). HCWs who trusted official sources of vaccine information (such as NHS or government adverts or websites) were less likely to report hesitancy for a regular vaccination programme. Those who had been exposed to information advocating against vaccination from friends and family were more likely to be hesitant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, nearly a quarter of UK HCWs were hesitant about receiving a regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We have identified key factors associated with hesitancy for regular SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which can be used to identify groups of HCWs at the highest risk of vaccine hesitancy and tailor interventions accordingly. Family and friends of HCWs may influence decisions about regular vaccination. This implies that working with HCWs and their social networks to allay concerns about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could improve uptake in a regular vaccination programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN11811602.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Practical Diabetes ; 39(5):13-18, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2059591

ABSTRACT

The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is two‐ to four‐fold higher in ethnic minority populations compared to White populations in the UK and is also associated with an increased risk of certain macrovascular and microvascular complications. Additionally, T2DM has an earlier onset in ethnic minority groups of around 10–12 years than in White populations. The exact reasons for the higher prevalence are unclear but include the complex interplay of biological, lifestyle, environmental and socioeconomic factors. This is further compounded by disparities in care received by ethnic minority populations. The UK was the first country to report on the disproportionate impact of COVID‐19 on ethnic minority groups. Diabetes is also a major risk factor for severe COVID‐19 and, combined with pre‐existing ethnic disparities in diabetes care, has been a significant contributor to inequalities in COVID‐19 outcomes for ethnic minority populations with diabetes including disproportionate hospitalisation and mortality. Major ethnic disparities in diabetes care in the US and UK, especially intermediate outcomes and diabetes complications, were evident prior to the COVID‐19 pandemic. However, the COVID‐19 pandemic has exposed these pre‐pandemic health disparities for ethnic minority populations with diabetes. Similar to the higher risk of T2DM in ethnic minority populations, the exact reasons for higher risk of COVID‐19 in minority ethnic groups are complex and include comorbidities, risk factor control, deprivation and access to care including wider structural issues. As we now plan for recovery, it is imperative that those delivering diabetes care urgently address the disproportionate impact the pandemic has had on ethnic minority populations. Reducing these inequalities will require a greater understanding of the causes. Copyright © 2022 John Wiley & Sons.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac464, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042636

ABSTRACT

We investigated long COVID incidence by vaccination status in a random sample of UK adults from April 2020 to November 2021. Persistent symptoms were reported by 9.5% of 3090 breakthrough severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections and 14.6% of unvaccinated controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59 [95% confidence interval, .50-.69]), emphasizing the need for public health initiatives to increase population-level vaccine uptake.

7.
Endocr Pract ; 28(8): 811-821, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The health and economic burden of type 2 diabetes is of global significance. Many people with type 2 diabetes eventually need insulin to help reduce their risk of serious associated complications. However, barriers to the initiation and/or optimization of insulin expose people with diabetes to sustained hyperglycemia. In this review, we investigated how new and future technologies may provide opportunities to help overcome these barriers to the initiation and/or optimization of insulin. METHODS: A focused literature search of PubMed and key scientific congresses was conducted. Software tools and devices developed to support the initiation and/or optimization of insulin were identified by manually filtering >300 publications and conference abstracts. RESULTS: Most software tools have been developed for smartphone platforms. At present, published data suggest that the use of these technologies is associated with equivalent or improved glycemic outcomes compared with standard care, with additional benefits such as reduced time burden and improved knowledge of diabetes among health care providers. However, there remains paucity of good-quality evidence. Most new devices to support insulin therapy help track the dose and timing of insulin. CONCLUSION: New digital health tools may help to reduce barriers to optimal insulin therapy. An integrated solution that connects glucose monitoring, dose recording, and titration advice as well as records comorbidities and lifestyle factors has the potential to reduce the complexity and burden of treatment and may improve adherence to titration and treatment, resulting in better outcomes for people with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use
9.
The British Journal of General Practice : The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners ; 72(722):444, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024379

ABSTRACT

Routen et al discuss the lack of diversity in health research. High-quality health research is central to evidence-informed health care. By assessing evidence on treatments, initiatives, and different ways of delivering services and changing practice where appropriate, health outcomes are improved. A survey of Wellcome Trust data found that people of White British ethnicity were 64% more likely than ethnic minority groups to have participated in health research, even when accounting for socioeconomic status, age, and sex. There has also been underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in COVID-19 research, including randomized trials of potential treatments, and vaccination and vaccine research, despite the greater COVID-19 burden experienced by ethnic minorities.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between prescription of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) incidence or mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) hospitalized with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study based on secondary analysis of data from a large nationwide audit from a network of 40 centers in the U.K. with data collection up to December 2020. The study was originally designed to describe risk factors associated with adverse outcomes among people with diabetes who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19. The primary outcome for this analysis was DKA on or during hospital admission. The secondary outcome was mortality. Crude, age-sex adjusted, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for people prescribed SGLT2i compared with those not prescribed SGLT2i. RESULTS: The original national audit included 3,067 people with T2D who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, of whom 230 (7.5%) were prescribed SGLT2is prior to hospital admission. The mean age of the overall cohort was 72 years, 62.3% were men, and 34.9% were prescribed insulin. Overall, 2.8% of the total population had DKA and 35.6% of people in the study died. The adjusted odds of DKA were not significantly different between those prescribed SGLT2is and those not (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.16-1.97). The adjusted odds of mortality associated with SGLT2is were similar in the total study population (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.78-1.63), in the subgroup prescribed insulin (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.59-1.77), and in the subgroup that developed DKA (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.01-8.76). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a low risk of DKA and high mortality rate in people with T2D admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and limited power, but no evidence, of increased risk of DKA or in-hospital mortality associated with prescription of SGLT2is.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019215

ABSTRACT

AIM: To provide a detailled analysis of the microvascular burden in patients with diabetes hopitalized for COVD-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed data from the French CORONADO initiative and the UK Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) COVID-19 audit, two nationwide multicentre studies, and the AMERICADO, a multicentre study conducted in New York area. We assessed the association between risk of all-cause death during hospital stay and the following microvascular complications in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19: diabetic retinopathy and/or diabetic kidney disease and/or history of diabetic foot ulcer. RESULTS: Among 2951 CORONADO, 3387 ABCD COVID-19 audit and 9327 AMERICADO participants, microvascular diabetic complications status was ascertained for 1314 (44.5%), 1809 (53.4%) and 7367 (79.0%) patients, respectively: 1010, 1059 and 1800, respectively, had ≥1 severe microvascular complication(s) and 304, 750 and 5567, respectively, were free of any complications. The patients with isolated diabetic kidney disease had an increased risk of all-cause death during hospital stay: odds ratio [OR] 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-3.83), OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.00-1.56) and OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40-1.95) in the CORONADO, the ABCD COVID-19 national audit and the AMERICADO studies, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to those without microvascular complications, patients with microvascular complications had an increased risk of all-cause death during hospital stay in the CORONADO, the ABCD COVID-19 diabetes national audit and the AMERICADO studies: adjusted OR (adj OR) 2.57 (95% CI 1.69-3.92), adj OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.00-1.52) and adj OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.15-1.53), respectively. In meta-analysis of the three studies, compared to patients free of complications, those with microvascular complications had an unadjusted OR for all-cause death during hospital stay of 2.05 (95% CI 1.42-2.97), which decreased to 1.62 (95% CI 1.19-2.119) after adjustment for age and sex, and to 1.50 (1.12-2.02) after hypertension and CVD were further added to the model. CONCLUSION: Microvascular burden is associated with an increased risk of death in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.

13.
Circulation ; 146(10): 743-754, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is more common after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection than after COVID-19 vaccination, but the risks in younger people and after sequential vaccine doses are less certain. METHODS: A self-controlled case series study of people ages 13 years or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between December 1, 2020, and December 15, 2021, evaluated the association between vaccination and myocarditis, stratified by age and sex. The incidence rate ratio and excess number of hospital admissions or deaths from myocarditis per million people were estimated for the 1 to 28 days after sequential doses of adenovirus (ChAdOx1) or mRNA-based (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273) vaccines, or after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. RESULTS: In 42 842 345 people receiving at least 1 dose of vaccine, 21 242 629 received 3 doses, and 5 934 153 had SARS-CoV-2 infection before or after vaccination. Myocarditis occurred in 2861 (0.007%) people, with 617 events 1 to 28 days after vaccination. Risk of myocarditis was increased in the 1 to 28 days after a first dose of ChAdOx1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.62]) and a first, second, and booster dose of BNT162b2 (1.52 [95% CI, 1.24-1.85]; 1.57 [95% CI, 1.28-1.92], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.33-2.22], respectively) but was lower than the risks after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test before or after vaccination (11.14 [95% CI, 8.64-14.36] and 5.97 [95% CI, 4.54-7.87], respectively). The risk of myocarditis was higher 1 to 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273 (11.76 [95% CI, 7.25-19.08]) and persisted after a booster dose (2.64 [95% CI, 1.25-5.58]). Associations were stronger in men younger than 40 years for all vaccines. In men younger than 40 years old, the number of excess myocarditis events per million people was higher after a second dose of mRNA-1273 than after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (97 [95% CI, 91-99] versus 16 [95% CI, 12-18]). In women younger than 40 years, the number of excess events per million was similar after a second dose of mRNA-1273 and a positive test (7 [95% CI, 1-9] versus 8 [95% CI, 6-8]). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the risk of myocarditis is greater after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after COVID-19 vaccination and remains modest after sequential doses including a booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. However, the risk of myocarditis after vaccination is higher in younger men, particularly after a second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Viral Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
14.
JMIR Cardio ; 6(2): e37360, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions have become increasingly common across health care, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health inequalities, particularly with respect to ethnicity, may not be considered in frameworks that address the implementation of digital health interventions. We considered frameworks to include any models, theories, or taxonomies that describe or predict implementation, uptake, and use of digital health interventions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how health inequalities are addressed in frameworks relevant to the implementation, uptake, and use of digital health interventions; health and ethnic inequalities; and interventions for cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: SCOPUS, PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and gray literature were searched to identify papers on frameworks relevant to the implementation, uptake, and use of digital health interventions; ethnically or culturally diverse populations and health inequalities; and interventions for cardiometabolic disease. We assessed the extent to which frameworks address health inequalities, specifically ethnic inequalities; explored how they were addressed; and developed recommendations for good practice. RESULTS: Of 58 relevant papers, 22 (38%) included frameworks that referred to health inequalities. Inequalities were conceptualized as society-level, system-level, intervention-level, and individual. Only 5 frameworks considered all levels. Three frameworks considered how digital health interventions might interact with or exacerbate existing health inequalities, and 3 considered the process of health technology implementation, uptake, and use and suggested opportunities to improve equity in digital health. When ethnicity was considered, it was often within the broader concepts of social determinants of health. Only 3 frameworks explicitly addressed ethnicity: one focused on culturally tailoring digital health interventions, and 2 were applied to management of cardiometabolic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Existing frameworks evaluate implementation, uptake, and use of digital health interventions, but to consider factors related to ethnicity, it is necessary to look across frameworks. We have developed a visual guide of the key constructs across the 4 potential levels of action for digital health inequalities, which can be used to support future research and inform digital health policies.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987388

ABSTRACT

Major ethnic disparities in diabetes care, especially for intermediate outcomes and diabetes complications, were evident prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Diabetes is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, and the combination of these ethnic disparities in diabetes care and outcomes may have contributed to the inequity in COVID-19 outcomes for people with diabetes. Overall, ethnic minority populations have suffered disproportionate rates of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality. Results from the limited number of studies of COVID-19 in ethnic minority populations with diabetes are mixed, but there is some suggestion that rates of hospitalization and mortality are higher than those of White populations. Reasons for the higher incidence and severity of COVID-19-related outcomes in minority ethnic groups are complex and have been shown to be due to differences in comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes), exposure risk (e.g., overcrowded living conditions or essential worker jobs), and access to treatment (e.g., health insurance status and access to tertiary care medical centers), which all relate to long-standing structural inequities that vary by ethnicity. While guidelines and approaches for diabetes self-management and outpatient and inpatient care during the pandemic have been published, few have recommended addressing wider structural issues. As we now plan for the recovery and improved surveillance and risk factor management, it is imperative that primary and specialist care services urgently address the disproportionate impact the pandemic has had on ethnic minority groups. This should include a focus on the larger structural barriers in society that put ethnic minorities with diabetes at potentially greater risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes.

16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(11): 2071-2080, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985768

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are now seen as an integral part of therapy in type 2 diabetes to control not only blood glucose but to improve cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an uncommon but serious complication of type 2 diabetes, which has a high case fatality rate. The absolute risk of DKA in large, prospective randomized clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes using SGLT2 inhibitors has been low, although the relative risk is higher in those assigned to SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo. In those without diabetes but prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors for heart failure or chronic kidney disease, the risk of DKA is similar to placebo. Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, cases of DKA have also been reported in cases of COVID-19 hospitalizations. Consensus guidelines have recommended that SGLT2 inhibitors should be avoided in cases of serious illness and suggest they are not recommended for routine in-hospital use. However, recent data suggest potential beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in the setting of acute illness with COVID-19 with no increase in adverse events and low rates of DKA, which were non-severe. Given the low rates of DKA in cardiovascular outcome trials and in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes, the potential for SGLT2 inhibitors not being re-initiated following discharge and their cardiovascular and kidney benefits, we believe the practice of routine 'sick day' guidance should be re-examined based on current evidence with a call for further research in this area. Furthermore, high-quality trials of initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people admitted to hospital with cardiovascular disease or kidney disease, and trials of continuation of SGLT2 inhibitors in people, with careful monitoring of DKA should be conducted. These should be further supplemented with large observational studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 996, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health problem globally and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programmes are associated with improved psychological and clinical outcomes. There are currently no structured DSMES available in Ghana. We sought to adapt an evidence-based DSMES intervention for the Ghanaian population in collaboration with the local Ghanaian people. METHODS: We used virtual engagements with UK-based DSMES trainers, produced locally culturally and linguistically appropriate content and modified the logistics needed for the delivery of the self-management programme to suit people with low literacy and low health literacy levels. CONCLUSIONS: A respectful understanding of the socio-cultural belief systems in Ghana as well as the peculiar challenges of low resources settings and low health literacy is necessary for adaptation of any DSMES programme for Ghana. We identified key cultural, linguistic, and logistic considerations to incorporate into a DSMES programme for Ghanaians, guided by the Ecological Validity Model. These insights can be used further to scale up availability of structured DSMES in Ghana and other low- middle- income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Ghana/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Self-Management/education
19.
BMJ ; 378: e070695, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of covid-19 death after infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta (B.1.617.2). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: England, United Kingdom, from 1 December 2021 to 30 December 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 1 035 149 people aged 18-100 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 under the national surveillance programme and had an infection identified as omicron BA.1 or delta compatible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was covid-19 death as identified from death certification records. The exposure of interest was the SARS-CoV-2 variant identified from NHS Test and Trace PCR positive tests taken in the community (pillar 2) and analysed by Lighthouse laboratories. Cause specific Cox proportional hazard regression models (censoring non-covid-19 deaths) were adjusted for sex, age, vaccination status, previous infection, calendar time, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation rank, household deprivation, university degree, keyworker status, country of birth, main language, region, disability, and comorbidities. Interactions between variant and sex, age, vaccination status, and comorbidities were also investigated. RESULTS: The risk of covid-19 death was 66% lower (95% confidence interval 54% to 75%) for omicron BA.1 compared with delta after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. The reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for omicron compared with delta was more pronounced in people aged 18-59 years (number of deaths: delta=46, omicron=11; hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.27) than in those aged ≥70 years (number of deaths: delta=113, omicron=135; hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.61, P<0.0001). No evidence of a difference in risk was found between variant and number of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The results support earlier studies showing a reduction in severity of infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta in terms of hospital admission. This study extends the research to also show a reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for the omicron variant compared with the delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 94, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acute illness severity and ongoing symptoms. METHODS: One thousand seventy-seven patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital between March and November 2020 were recruited. Using a 14-day wear protocol, wrist-worn accelerometers were sent to participants after a five-month follow-up assessment. Acute illness severity was assessed by the WHO clinical progression scale, and the severity of ongoing symptoms was assessed using four previously reported data-driven clinical recovery clusters. Two existing control populations of office workers and individuals with type 2 diabetes were comparators. RESULTS: Valid accelerometer data from 253 women and 462 men were included. Women engaged in a mean ± SD of 14.9 ± 14.7 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), with 12.1 ± 1.7 h/day spent inactive and 7.2 ± 1.1 h/day asleep. The values for men were 21.0 ± 22.3 and 12.6 ± 1.7 h /day and 6.9 ± 1.1 h/day, respectively. Over 60% of women and men did not have any days containing a 30-min bout of MVPA. Variability in sleep timing was approximately 2 h in men and women. More severe acute illness was associated with lower total activity and MVPA in recovery. The very severe recovery cluster was associated with fewer days/week containing continuous bouts of MVPA, longer total sleep time, and higher variability in sleep timing. Patients post-hospitalisation with COVID-19 had lower levels of physical activity, greater sleep variability, and lower sleep efficiency than a similarly aged cohort of office workers or those with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Those recovering from a hospital admission for COVID-19 have low levels of physical activity and disrupted patterns of sleep several months after discharge. Our comparative cohorts indicate that the long-term impact of COVID-19 on physical behaviours is significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Accelerometry/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Sleep
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