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1.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 86: 104663, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237876

ABSTRACT

Deficiency of selenium (Se) has been described in a significant number of COVID-19 patients having a higher incidence of mortality, which makes it a pertinent issue to be addressed clinically for effective management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Se nanoparticles (SeNPs) provide a unique option for managing the havoc caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. SeNPs possess promising anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by virtue of their nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-stimulator of activated B cells (NFκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) modulatory activity. In addition, SeNPs possess remarkable immunomodulatory effects, making them a suitable option for supplementation with a much lower risk of toxicity compared to their elemental counterpart. Further, SeNPs have been shown to curtail viral and microbial infections, thus, making it a novel means to halt viral growth. In addition, it can be administered in the form of aerosol spray, direct injection, or infused thin-film transdermal patches to reduce the spread of this highly contagious viral infection. Moreover, a considerable decrease in the expression of selenoprotein along with enhanced expression of IL-6 in COVID-19 suggests a potential association among selenoprotein expression and COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the unique antimicrobial and antiviral properties of SeNPs and the immunomodulatory potential of selenoproteins. We provide the rationale behind their potentially interesting properties and further exploration in the context of microbial and viral infections. Further, the importance of selenoproteins and their role in maintaining a successful immune response along with their association to Se status is summarized.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108773, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796626

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the leading pulmonary inflammatory disorders causing significant morbidity and mortality. Vincamine is a novel phytochemical with promising anti-inflammatory properties. In the current work, the protective effect of vincamine was studied in vitro (Raw 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in Swiss albino mice. Vincamine significantly reduced nitrite and TNF-α release from the LPS stimulated macrophages and increased the levels of IL-10, indicating potent anti-inflammatory effects. It was observed that vincamine at the dose of 40 mg/kg, significantly reduced LPS induced inflammatory cell count in blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Further, vincamine exerted potent suppression of inflammation by reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while significantly increased (p < 0.001) the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and IL-22). Interestingly, histological changes were reversed in vincamine treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly enhanced expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and COX-2 while reduced expression of Nrf-2 in disease control group, which were significantly (p < 0.001) ameliorated by vincamine. We, to the best of our knowledge, report for the first time that vincamine possesses protective potential against LPS induced inflammation and oxidative stress, possibly by inhibiting the NF-κB cascade, while positively regulating the Nrf-2 pathway. These findings are of potential relevance for COVID-19 management concerning the fact that lung injury and ARDS are its critical features.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Catharanthus , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Vincamine , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Catharanthus/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vincamine/metabolism , Vincamine/pharmacology , Vincamine/therapeutic use
3.
Sens Int ; 2: 100102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253645

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the worst pandemics to have hit the humanity. The manifestations are quite varied, ranging from severe lung infections to being asymptomatic. Hence, there is an urgent need to champion new tools to accelerate the end of this pandemic. Compromised immunity is a primary feature of COVID-19. Allium sativum (AS) is an effective dietary supplement known for its immune-modulatory, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antifungal, and anti-viral properties. In this paper, it is hypothesized that carbon dots (CDs) derived from AS (AS-CDs) may possess the potential to downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and revert the immunological aberrations to normal in case of COVID-19. CDs have already been explored in the world of nanobiomedicine as a promising theranostic candidates for bioimaging and drug/gene delivery. The antifibrotic and antioxidant effects of AS are elaborated, as demonstrated in several studies. It is found that the most active constituent of AS, allicin has a highly potent antioxidant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging effect. The antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-viral effects along with their capability of negating inflammatory effects and cytokine storm are discussed. The synthesis of theranostic CDs from AS may provide a novel weapon in the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of COVID-19 infection and, at the same time, could act as a diagnostic agent for COVID-19.

4.
Sens Int ; 2: 100101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253644

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious and widespread disease that has strained the global healthcare system to the hilt. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known for their potent antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory and biosensing properties. AgNPs have been found to be potential antiviral agent that act against many deadly viruses and is presumed to be effective against COVID-19. AgNPs can generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis mediated cell death thereby inhibiting viral infection. The shape and size of AgNPs play an important role in its biomedical applications as alterations may result in variable biological interaction and activity. Herein, we propose that AgNPs can be utilized for effective management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by highlighting the current status of AgNPs in the fight against COVID-19.

5.
Med Hypotheses ; 152: 110612, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240509

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus pandemic has emerged as an extraordinary healthcare crisis in modern times. The SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus has high transmission rate, is more aggressive and virulent in comparison to previously known coronaviruses. It primarily attacks the respiratory system by inducing cytokine storm that causes systemic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Decorin is a pluripotent molecule belonging to a leucine rich proteoglycan group that exerts critical role in extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and regulates cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. Interestingly, decorin has potent anti-inflammatory, cytokine inhibitory, and anti-fibrillogenesis effects which make it a potential drug candidate against the COVID-19 related complications especially in the context of lung fibrosis. Herein, we postulate that owing to its distinctive pharmacological actions and immunomodulatory effect, decorin can be a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Decorin , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sens Int ; 2: 100098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230775

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory infection that has been declared as a global health crisis by the WHO. It mainly affects the respiratory system. Apart from respiratory system, it also affects other organs as well including the brain. Numerous emerging reports have demonstrated that the COVID-19 has detrimental effects on neurological functions, and can lead to severe impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurological manifestations linked with COVID-19 include headache, anosmia, encephalitis, epileptic seizures, Guillain-Barre syndrome, stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage alongwith multiple others complications. The CNS related complications may be severe and are linked with poor diagnosis which may worsen the condition. Therefore, there is a need to precisely understand the neurological sequelae along with upcoming clinical outcomes. Here, we present a brief review of the neurological complications and symptoms associated with COVID-19 along with brain imaging findings. Further, we have discussed about the emerging biosensing approaches which may aid in rapid, precise and mass diagnosis of COVID-19.

7.
Nano Today ; 38: 101142, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157629

ABSTRACT

The emergency use authorization (EUA) by the US-FDA for two mRNA-based vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) has brought hope of addressing the COVID-19 pandemic which has killed more than two million people globally. Nanotechnology has played a significant role in the success of these vaccines. Nanoparticles (NPs) aid in improving stability by protecting the encapsulated mRNA from ribonucleases and facilitate delivery of intact mRNA to the target site. The overwhelming success of these two mRNA based vaccines with ~95% efficacy in phase III clinical trials can be attributed to their unique nanocarrier, the "lipid nanoparticles" (LNPs). LNPs are unique compared with bilayered liposomes and provide improved stability of the cargo, possess rigid morphology, and aid in better cellular penetration. This EUA is a major milestone and showcases the immense potential of nanotechnology for vaccine delivery and for fighting against future pandemics. Currently, these two vaccines are aiding in the alleviation of the COVID-19 health crisis and demonstrate the potential utility of nanomedicine for tackling health problems at the global level.

8.
Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110534, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082320

ABSTRACT

Bilirubin has been proven to possess significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been postulated as a metabolic hormone. Further, moderately higher levels of bilirubin are positively associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. However, due to poor solubility the therapeutic delivery of bilirubin remains a challenge. Nanotechnology offers unique advantages which may be exploited for improved delivery of bilirubin to the target organ with reduced risk of systemic toxicity. Herein, we postulate the use of intravenous administration or inhalational delivery of bilirubin nanomedicine (BNM) to combat systemic dysfunctions associated with COVID-19, owing to the remarkable preclinical efficacy and optimistic results of various clinical studies of bilirubin in non-communicable disorders. BNM may be used to harness the proven preclinical pharmacological efficacy of bilirubin against COVID-19 related systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biliverdine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammation , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Models, Theoretical , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , Risk , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
9.
Nano Today ; 35: 100982, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759198

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented global healthcare emergency and has devastated the global economy. The SARS-CoV-2 virus replicates in the host cells and is seemingly much more virulent compared to other flu viruses, as well as the SARS-CoV-1. The respiratory complications of the disease include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, systemic inflammation, and pulmonary fibrosis. Nanoceria (NC) is a versatile rare earth nanoparticle with remarkable catalase and superoxide dismutase mimetic redox regenerative properties. Interestingly, NC possesses promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties, making it an attractive tool to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 as well as the associated systemic complications. Until now, there is no clinically approved vaccine or drug for the treatment of COVID-19, and the conquest to find a novel therapy for this global havoc is being undertaken at a warlike pace. Herein, based on preclinical evidence, we hypothesize that NC owing to its unique pharmacological properties, might be an attractive preclinical candidate to win the battle over COVID-19. Further, it may be used as a prevention or treatment strategy in combination with other drugs.

10.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110259, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most devastating health emergency that humans have seen over the past century. The war against the disease has been handicapped by unavailability of effective therapeutic options. Till date, there is no clinically approved vaccine or drug for the treatment of COVID-19, and the ongoing search to find a novel therapy is progressing at pandemic pace. Herein, we propose a novel hypothesis based on sound research evidence that electric stimulation can be a potential adjuvant to the currently used symptomatic therapies and antiviral drugs. Based on preclinical evidence, we propose that electric stimulation can improve respiratory functions, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 growth, reduce pain, boost immunity and improve the penetration of antiviral drugs. We envisage that our hypothesis, if used clinically as an adjuvant, may significantly improve the therapeutic outcomes of the current treatment regimen being used around the globe for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Immune System , Models, Theoretical , Pain Management , Respiration , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Respiration Disorders/virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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