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J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 86: 104663, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237876


Deficiency of selenium (Se) has been described in a significant number of COVID-19 patients having a higher incidence of mortality, which makes it a pertinent issue to be addressed clinically for effective management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Se nanoparticles (SeNPs) provide a unique option for managing the havoc caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. SeNPs possess promising anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by virtue of their nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-stimulator of activated B cells (NFκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) modulatory activity. In addition, SeNPs possess remarkable immunomodulatory effects, making them a suitable option for supplementation with a much lower risk of toxicity compared to their elemental counterpart. Further, SeNPs have been shown to curtail viral and microbial infections, thus, making it a novel means to halt viral growth. In addition, it can be administered in the form of aerosol spray, direct injection, or infused thin-film transdermal patches to reduce the spread of this highly contagious viral infection. Moreover, a considerable decrease in the expression of selenoprotein along with enhanced expression of IL-6 in COVID-19 suggests a potential association among selenoprotein expression and COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the unique antimicrobial and antiviral properties of SeNPs and the immunomodulatory potential of selenoproteins. We provide the rationale behind their potentially interesting properties and further exploration in the context of microbial and viral infections. Further, the importance of selenoproteins and their role in maintaining a successful immune response along with their association to Se status is summarized.

Sens Int ; 2: 100101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253644


COVID-19 is a highly contagious and widespread disease that has strained the global healthcare system to the hilt. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known for their potent antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory and biosensing properties. AgNPs have been found to be potential antiviral agent that act against many deadly viruses and is presumed to be effective against COVID-19. AgNPs can generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to apoptosis mediated cell death thereby inhibiting viral infection. The shape and size of AgNPs play an important role in its biomedical applications as alterations may result in variable biological interaction and activity. Herein, we propose that AgNPs can be utilized for effective management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by highlighting the current status of AgNPs in the fight against COVID-19.

Med Hypotheses ; 152: 110612, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240509


Coronavirus pandemic has emerged as an extraordinary healthcare crisis in modern times. The SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus has high transmission rate, is more aggressive and virulent in comparison to previously known coronaviruses. It primarily attacks the respiratory system by inducing cytokine storm that causes systemic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Decorin is a pluripotent molecule belonging to a leucine rich proteoglycan group that exerts critical role in extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and regulates cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. Interestingly, decorin has potent anti-inflammatory, cytokine inhibitory, and anti-fibrillogenesis effects which make it a potential drug candidate against the COVID-19 related complications especially in the context of lung fibrosis. Herein, we postulate that owing to its distinctive pharmacological actions and immunomodulatory effect, decorin can be a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the therapy of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Cytokines , Decorin , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Nano Today ; 38: 101142, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157629


The emergency use authorization (EUA) by the US-FDA for two mRNA-based vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) has brought hope of addressing the COVID-19 pandemic which has killed more than two million people globally. Nanotechnology has played a significant role in the success of these vaccines. Nanoparticles (NPs) aid in improving stability by protecting the encapsulated mRNA from ribonucleases and facilitate delivery of intact mRNA to the target site. The overwhelming success of these two mRNA based vaccines with ~95% efficacy in phase III clinical trials can be attributed to their unique nanocarrier, the "lipid nanoparticles" (LNPs). LNPs are unique compared with bilayered liposomes and provide improved stability of the cargo, possess rigid morphology, and aid in better cellular penetration. This EUA is a major milestone and showcases the immense potential of nanotechnology for vaccine delivery and for fighting against future pandemics. Currently, these two vaccines are aiding in the alleviation of the COVID-19 health crisis and demonstrate the potential utility of nanomedicine for tackling health problems at the global level.

Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110534, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082320


Bilirubin has been proven to possess significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been postulated as a metabolic hormone. Further, moderately higher levels of bilirubin are positively associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. However, due to poor solubility the therapeutic delivery of bilirubin remains a challenge. Nanotechnology offers unique advantages which may be exploited for improved delivery of bilirubin to the target organ with reduced risk of systemic toxicity. Herein, we postulate the use of intravenous administration or inhalational delivery of bilirubin nanomedicine (BNM) to combat systemic dysfunctions associated with COVID-19, owing to the remarkable preclinical efficacy and optimistic results of various clinical studies of bilirubin in non-communicable disorders. BNM may be used to harness the proven preclinical pharmacological efficacy of bilirubin against COVID-19 related systemic complications.

Bilirubin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biliverdine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammation , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Models, Theoretical , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , Risk , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment