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Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503913


Several studies have indicated that selenium deficiency may be detrimental in the context of various viral disorders, and in the case of COVID-19, several studies have reported heterogeneous results concerning the association of selenium deficiency with the severity of disease. To summarize the available data surrounding the association of body selenium levels with the outcomes of COVID-19, a systematic search was performed in the Medline database (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science using keywords including "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "selenium," Studies evaluating the association of COVID-19 with body selenium levels were included. Among 1,862 articles viewed in the database search, 10 articles were included after title, abstract, and full-text review. One study was further included after searching the literature again for any newly published articles. Out of 11 included studies, 10 studies measured serum selenium level, and one study investigated urinary selenium level. Three of 10 studies measured serum SELENOP level as well as selenium level. Glutathione peroxidase-3 level in serum was also assessed in one study. The reported outcomes were severity, mortality, and risk of COVID-19. Nine studies indicated that a lower serum selenium level is associated with worse outcomes. Two studies reported no significant association between serum selenium level and COVID-19. In one study, urinary selenium level was reported to be higher in severe and fatal cases compared to non-severe and recovered patients, respectively. In most cases, selenium deficiency was associated with worse outcomes, and selenium levels in COVID-19 patients were lower than in healthy individuals. Thus, it could be concluded that cautious selenium supplementation in COVID-19 patients may be helpful to prevent disease progression. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this.

Adv Food Nutr Res ; 96: 417-429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265623


Selenium (Se) is an element commonly found in the environment at different levels. Its compounds are found in soil, water, and air. This element is also present in raw materials of plant and animal origin, so it can be introduced into human organisms through food. Selenium is a cofactor of enzymes responsible for the antioxidant protection of the body and plays an important role in regulating inflammatory processes in the body. A deficiency in selenium is associated with a number of viral diseases, including COVID-19. This element, taken in excess, may have a toxic effect in the form of joint diseases and diseases of the blood system. Persistent selenium deficiency in the body may also impact infertility, and in such cases supplementation is needed.

COVID-19/blood , Nutritional Status , Selenium/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Infertility/blood , Infertility/drug therapy , Infertility/etiology , Male , Selenium/deficiency , Selenium/therapeutic use , Selenium/toxicity , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/etiology
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109878, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343576


Selenium (Se) is a ubiquitous element akin to sulfur (S) existing in the Earth crust in various organic and inorganic forms. Selenium concentration varies greatly depending on the geographic area. Consequently, the content of selenium in food products is also variable. It is known that low Se is associated with increased incidence of cancer and heart diseases. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement diet with this element albeit in a proper form. Although blood increased concentrations of Se can be achieved with various pharmacological preparations, only one chemical form (sodium selenite) can offer a true protection. Sodium selenite, but not selenate, can oxidize thiol groups in the virus protein disulfide isomerase rendering it unable to penetrate the healthy cell membrane. In this way selenite inhibits the entrance of viruses into the healthy cells and abolish their infectivity. Therefore, this simple chemical compound can potentially be used in the recent battle against coronavirus epidemic.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Selenium/chemistry , Sodium Selenite/therapeutic use , Antioxidants , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Hemostasis , Humans , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfhydryl Compounds