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JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e28005, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141326


BACKGROUND: The clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 disease are variable. Multiple factors can affect the disease progression and outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 in Jordan. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected for 557 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Prince Hamzah Hospital (PHH), Jordan. Analysis was performed using appropriate statistical tests with SPSS version 24. RESULTS: Of the 557 COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases admitted to PHH, the mean age was 34.4 years (SD 18.95 years; range 5 weeks to 87 years), 86.0% (479/557) were male, 41% (29/70) were blood group A+, and 57.1% (93/163) were overweight or obese. Significant past medical history was documented in 25.9% (144/557), significant surgical history in 12.6% (70/557), current smoking in 14.9% (83/557), and pregnancy in 0.5% (3/557). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.4 (SD 9.3; range 5 to 70) days; 52.6% (293/557) were asymptomatic, and 12.9% (72/557) had more than 5 symptoms, with generalized malaise and dry cough the most common symptoms. Only 2.5% (14/557) had a respiratory rate over 25 breaths/minute, and 1.8% (10/557) had an oxygen saturation below 85%. Laboratory investigations showed a wide range of abnormalities, with lymphocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer the most common abnormalities. Ground glass opacity was the most common imaging finding. Men had a significantly higher frequency of symptoms, incidence of smoking, reduced hemoglobin, increased monocyte %, elevated creatinine levels, and intensive care unit admissions compared with women (P<.05). Hospitalization duration was associated with increased age, male gender, symptom score, history of smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated respiratory rate, and elevated monocyte %, CRP, ESR, creatinine, and D-dimer (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 cases admitted to PHH were asymptomatic. Variabilities in symptoms, signs, laboratory results, and imaging findings should be noted. Increased age, male gender, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 41(1): 83-92, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228398


BACKGROUND: Data on COVID-19 in children are limited. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics, laboratory results and longitudinal RT-PCR- testing pattern in children infected with theSARS-CoV2 virus and admitted to a hospital in Jordan. METHODS: The study is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted between 16 March and 23 April 2020. All infected children in Jordan were hospitalised. Serial RT-PCR testing was undertaken 7 days after the first test and then on alternate days until discharge. The association between patient symptoms and laboratory results and whether there was a statistically significant median difference in the number of days until negative RT-PCR results between patients was studied. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients with positive SARS-CoV2 swabs were admitted, 34 (55.7%) of whom were symptomatic. The most common symptom was nasal congestion (21/61, 34.3%), followed by generalised malaise and headache (12/6, 19.7%). A rash was detected in 5/61 (8.2%) of them. Fifty-five patients (90.1%) underwent investigations: 4 (7.4%) of them had lymphopenia, 4 (7.4%) had eosinopenia, 8 (14.5%) had eosinophilia, and platelets were elevated in 5 (9.1%) children. CRP was measured in 33/61 (54.1%) patients and all were normal. ESR levels were available for 11/61 (18%) patients and were elevated in 5 (45.5%). There was a statistically significant association between laboratory results and symptom expression (p = 0.011). The longest time until the first negative RT-PCR result was 39 days. CONCLUSION: All children admitted who tested positive for SARS-CoV2 had mild symptoms and five had cutaneous manifestations. RT-PCR may remain positive for over one month.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies
J Infect Public Health ; 14(6): 689-695, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118563


BACKGROUND: The number of COVID-19 infected patients has been soaring in the Middle East countries. The disease poses a significant threat, decisions about prioritizing care should be made in accordance with the proven risk factors for complications. OBJECTIVE: The present study provides the first bespoke prediction model in the Middle East to identify COVID-19 patients, who are at higher risk for complications. METHOD: A case-control study design was adopted to compare the characteristics of successfully recovered patients with those who had complications. Complications were defined as admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, sepsis or septic shock, pneumonia or respiratory failure, and death. The prediction model was created through multivariable logistic regression. Overall statistical significance tests for the model were carried out. RESULTS: All COVID-19 infected hospitalized patients (n = 133) in Amman - Jordan were included in the study. Successfully recovered were 125 patients. The median age (IRQ) was 26 (10-40). Almost 30% were >40 years. Patients with complications were eight patients, age 63 (51.5-71.5). The prediction model identified the following variables as risk factors: diabetes (OR = 59.7; 95% CI: 3.5-1011.5, p = 0.005), fever (OR = 24.8; 95% CI: 1.4-447.3, p = 0.029), SHORTNESS OF BREATH (OR = 15.9; 95% CI: 1.3-189.7, p = 0.029), body mass index (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61-0.88, p = 0.001), abnormal Neutrophils (OR = 16.8; 95% CI: 1.0-292.0, p = 0.053). Prediction model was statistically significant, χ2(5) = 86.1, p < 0.0005. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike reports from China, the most influential variables that led to disease progression in Jordanian patients were diabetes, fever, shortness of breath, body mass index, and abnormal neutrophils. Similar to reports from the USA, smoking was not a leading factor for complications. Comorbidities and patient health status, rather than age, were the primary risk factors for complications. Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine showed no protective effect.

COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Case-Control Studies , China , Hospitalization , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Middle East , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2