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J Hosp Infect ; 131: 12-22, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242551


BACKGROUND: Disinfection is one of the most effective ways to block the rapid transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, disinfectants have become crucial to prevent person-to-person transmission and decontaminate hands, clothes, facilities and equipment. However, there is a lack of accurate information on the virucidal activity of commercial disinfectants. AIM: To evaluate the virucidal efficacy of 72 commercially available disinfectants constituting 16 types of ingredients against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 was tested with various concentrations of disinfectants at indicated exposure time points as recommended by the manufacturers. The 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay was used to calculate virus titre, and trypan blue staining and CCK-8 were used to assess cell viability after 3-5 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: This study found that disinfectants based on 83% ethanol, 60% propanol/ethanol, 0.00108-0.0011% sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 0.497% potassium peroxymonosulfate inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively and safely. Although disinfectants based on 0.05-0.4% benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 0.02-0.07% quaternary ammonium compound (QAC; 1:1), 0.4% BAC/didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), 0.28% benzethonium chloride concentrate/2-propanol, 0.0205-0.14% DDAC/polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide inactivated SARS-CoV-2 effectively, they exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, disinfectants based on 0.04-4% QAC (2:3), 0.00625% BAC/DDAC/PHMB, and 0.0205-0.14% and 0.0173% peracetic acid showed approximately 50% virucidal efficacy with no cytotoxicity. Citric acid (0.4%) did not inactivate SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that most commercially available disinfectants exert a disinfectant effect against SARS-CoV-2. However, re-evaluation of the effective concentration and exposure time of certain disinfectants is needed, especially citric acid and peracetic acid.

Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-186, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596826


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 62 million people worldwide as of November 28, 2020. Emerging studies have revealed a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms among patients with COVID-19, and coronavirus particles have been found in their stool. However, there are minimal data regarding the impact of COVID-19 severity on the GI system. In this study, we evaluated GI and hepatobiliary manifestations in a large number of hospitalized patients across the United States (US) with COVID-19 based on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), a surrogate for COVID-19 severity. Methods: Seven US academic centers ed data from patients who had a positive COVID-19 test and were hospitalized. Demographics, presenting symptoms, clinical, and laboratory data were ed, as were hospitalization outcomes. Patients were stratified According to admission to the ICU (yes/no) during their hospital course. GI and hepatobiliary manifestations and outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test, and parametric laboratory values were compared using Student’s t test. Results: Of a total of 1,896 COVID-19 positive patients, 730 patients (38.5%) were admitted to the ICU (Table 1). ICU admissions were more likely to be male (64.2% vs. 52.1%;p<0.01). The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea in ICU patients (57.8%) versus cough in non-ICU patients (47.9%).The prevalence of patients reporting GI symptoms was similar between ICU and non-ICU patients (20.4% vs 21.1%;p=0.14). Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had a higher prevalence of abnormal serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values (16.0% vs. 6.7%;p<0.01) and total bilirubin > 3 mg/dL (3.1% vs. 0.8%;p<0.01) (Table 2). There was not a significant difference in prevalence of abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values between the two groups (9.6% vs. 7.1%;p=0.13). The peak values of AST, ALT, and total bilirubin among all patients in the cohort were 3384 U/L, 1274 U/L, and 54 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: In a large US-based cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, GI symptoms did not differ between ICU and non-ICU patients despite their high prevalence. ICU patients were more likely to have serum liver test abnormalities. In this context, further investigation is needed to clarify whether hepatobiliary dysfunction stems from direct injury from COVID-19 or an indirect effect of ICU-related multi-organ dysfunc-tion. Such insight would help guide future management to reduce the risk of and mitigate hepatic injury in these patients (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-187, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596825


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 14 million people in the United States (US) as of December 1, 2020. Recent data have shown that COVID-19 strains appear to demonstrate geographic variation, such as Asian strains predominating in the Western US and European strains predominating in the Eastern US. However, the clinical significance of this variation remains unclear. In this large, multi-center cohort study, we evaluated gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of COVID-19 regionally and throughout the US. Methods: Patients hospitalized with a positive COVID-19 test were identified at seven US academic centers. As a surrogate for differing COVID-19 strains, patients were stratified into regions (West, Midwest, or Northeast) depending on hospital location. Demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, and hospitalization outcomes were ed. Statistical comparisons were performed with Chi-square and ANOVA tests, as appropriate. Results: A total of 1896 patients were identified (Table 1). Most patients were male (56.8%), and the most prevalent race was Caucasian (40.5%). The mean age was 58.1 years (±19.1), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.9 (±8.4). A third (29.2%) of patients had a known COVID-19 exposure. The mean presenting temperature was 37.3 °C, and dyspnea was the most common presenting symptom (48.2%). GI symptoms were present in 20.3% of the overall cohort (Table 2);diarrhea was most common (12.4%), followed by nausea and/or vomiting (10.3%) and abdominal pain (6.0%). Geographically, GI symptoms were significantly less common in the Western cohort (17.8%) than the Northeastern (25.6%) and Midwestern (26.7%) cohorts. GI complications (GI hemorrhage and pancreatitis) were also significantly less common in the Western cohort (1.5%, 0.2%) than the Northeastern (6.9%, 1.5%) and Midwestern (3.3%, 1.7%) cohorts. The Midwestern cohort had a higher prevalence of moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST;23.5% vs 8.5% in Western and 10.5% in Northeastern cohorts;p<0.01). Compared to the Northeastern and Midwestern cohorts, the Western cohort had a higher prevalence of mildly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT;20.9% and 20.9% vs 28.5%;p=0.01) and total bilirubin (6.7% and 7.0% vs 11.4%;p=0.03). The presence of GI symptoms was not associated with increased mortality (p=0.15). Conclusions: Although GI manifestations were common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, there is significant variability in prevalence across the US. GI symptoms and complications were less common in the West than the Northeast or Midwest. Our study highlights notable geographic variations in GI manifestations of COVID-19, prompting the need for further investigation into the mechanisms of these differences. Such insight could identify strategies that mitigate GI complications of COVID-19 infection.(Table presented) Demographic and Clinical Data of Patients with COVID-19 by Geographic Region. (Table presented) Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19 in Patients by Geographic Region.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S322, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185874


Background: As only few studies have analyzed viral kinetics between the incubation and symptomatic periods of COVID-19 patients, we investigated the viral kinetics and compared viral loads between patients with mild and severe COVID-19. Methods: We determined the viral kinetics of 10 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at Chosun University Hospital. Six patients were classified into the “mild” group and 4 into the “severe” group according to supplemental oxygen use during admission. Samples were collected via nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum specimens. SARS-CoV-2 was detected using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Chest radiograph scores during hospitalization were obtained Results: Ct values of the upper respiratory tract specimens were low during the early stages after symptom onset but gradually increased over time in both groups. The severe group had lower Ct values than the mild group. The Ct values of the RdRP and E genes on day 6 after symptom onset were significantly lower in the severe group than in the mild group (p < 0.05). Three of 6 patients had positive results on RT-PCR even before symptom onset;2 of them had the lowest Ct values. The chest radiograph scores were higher in the severe group than in the mild group, and the score in the severe group was the highest at approximately 3 weeks after symptom onset. Ct values when the RdRP gene and E gene were targeted to detect SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the days after symptom onset in all the patients Conclusion: Viral load and chest radiograph scores were significantly different between the severe and mild groups of COVID-19 patients. (Figure Presented).