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1.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924897

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are more vulnerable to viral epidemics, experiencing higher mortality rates compared to individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study sought to demonstrate clinical outcomes and associated factors among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed Korean HD patients. Methods: From February 2020 to November 2021, the COVID-19 Task Force Team collected clinical data for HD patients with confirmed COVID-19 via a self-report survey of nephrologists. The composite outcome included in-hospital mortality, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and use of mechanical ventilation. Risk factors associated with clinical outcomes were analyzed among HD patients and compared to those of individuals without CKD using the COVID-19 database from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Results: A total of 380 HD patients from 206 facilities were diagnosed with COVID-19. Fever (49.5%) and cough (25.7%) were the two most common initial symptoms. The overall in-hospital fatality rate was 22.4% and even higher among ICU admission cases (64.7%). Non-survivors were older, more frequently developed shortness of breath, and were more likely to come from a nursing hospital. Compared to the age- and sex-matched non-CKD population, HD patients showed greater risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.75; p < 0.001) and composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.50; 95% confidence interval, 2.56-4.77; p < 0.001). Conclusion: HD patients have a greater risk of in-hospital mortality and morbidity from COVID-19. Special attention should be paid to COVID-19 HD patients when they are older or present with symptoms.

2.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 41(2): 219-230, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented changes in behavior. We evaluated the current status of precautionary behavior and physical activity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A population of CKD patients (n = 306) registered in the Study on Kidney Disease and Environmental Chemicals (SKETCH, Clinical Trial No. NCT04679168) cohort recruited from June 2020 to October 2020 was included in the study. We conducted a questionnaire survey related to risk perception of COVID-19, precautionary behavior, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were 187 patients (61.1%) with estimated glomerular filtration rate of <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 . This population showed a higher degree of risk perception for COVID-19 than the general population. Age was the most significant determinant of risk perception among CKD patients. During the pandemic, social distancing and hygiene-related behavior were significantly increased (p < 0.001). The frequency of exercise was decreased only in those who took regular exercise, without diabetes, or with a lower Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (p < 0.001), with no change among the other groups. Socioeconomic status and comorbidities significantly affected behavioral characteristics regardless of the category. Education and income were significantly associated with precautionary behaviors such as staying at home and hand sanitizer use. Patients with higher CCI status significantly increased frequency of exercise (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.38). CONCLUSION: CKD patients showed higher risk perception with active precautionary behavioral changes than the general population. Healthcare providers should be aware of the characteristics to comprise precautionary behavior without reducing physical activity.

3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(3): 732-740, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526361

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, an antiviral agent for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is metabolized intracellularly, with these metabolites eliminated predominantly in urine. Because of a lack of safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) data, remdesivir is not currently recommended for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 and those on hemodialysis. This study evaluated the PKs of remdesivir and its metabolite, GS-441524, in patients with COVID-19 who were and were not receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). This study enrolled two patients with normal renal function, two with impaired renal function not receiving RRT, two receiving continuous RRT (CRRT), and three undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Patients were administered 200 mg remdesivir on the first day, followed by 100 mg/day for 5-10 days. Serial blood samples were collected for PK analysis, and PK parameters were assessed by a noncompartmental method. Systemic exposure to remdesivir was higher in patients with impaired renal function and those receiving CRRT than in patients with normal renal function, but was similar in patients undergoing IHD and those with normal renal function. By contrast, systemic exposure to GS-441524 was highest in patients undergoing IHD, followed by patients with impaired renal function and those receiving CRRT, and lowest in patients with normal renal function. The PK profiles of remdesivir and GS-441524 varied according to renal function and RRT. The impact of PK changes of remdesivir and its metabolite on safety and efficacy should be considered when administering remdesivir to patients with COVID-19 with renal impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods
4.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(3): 501-504, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464165
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(7): 1398-1408, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections during previous coronavirus epidemics involving severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome resulted from human-to-human transmission in hemodialysis (HD) facilities. The effect of a strategy of HD with cohort isolation-separate dialysis sessions for close contacts of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-on the prevention of secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in HD units is unknown. METHODS: Our multicenter cohort study of an HD with cohort isolation strategy enrolled close contacts of patients with confirmed COVID-19, including patients on HD and health care workers in HD units. Close contacts had been identified by epidemiologic investigation and tested negative on an immediate screening test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: As of March 14, 11 patients on HD and 7 health care workers from 11 HD centers were diagnosed as having COVID-19. The immediate screening test was performed in 306 people, and among them, 302 close contacts with negative test results were enrolled. HD with cohort isolation was performed among all close contacts for a median of 14 days in seven centers. During cohort isolation, nine patients showed symptoms but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two health care workers in the HD units (0.66% of the total group) were diagnosed at the termination test for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission of COVID-19 can be controlled without closure of HD centers by implementing preemptive activities, including early detection with rapid testing, cohort isolation, collaboration between institutions, and continuous monitoring of infection. Our strategy and experience may provide helpful guidance for circumstances involving the rapid spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Program Evaluation , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Rate
6.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 39(2): 145-150, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-266301

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral disease that is caused by the novel virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has become pandemic since December 2019, when the first case developed in Wuhan, China. Patients receiving hemodialysis are more vulnerable to viral transmission because their immune functions are impaired and they receive treatment within a narrow space. Calling on previous experience with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome during the 2015 outbreak, the joint committee of the Korean Society of Nephrology and the Korean Society of Dialysis Therapy quickly formed a COVID-19 task force team to develop a manual before the first index case was diagnosed in the hemodialysis unit. This special article introduces clinical practice guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of COVID-19 within hemodialysis facilities, which were developed to protect patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers from this highly transmissible virus. The areas of infection control covered by these guidelines include standard precautions, performing dialysis therapy for confirmed or suspected cases, performing cohort isolation for contact patients, and disease monitoring and contact surveillance. We hope these guidelines help healthcare workers and hemodialysis patients around the world cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.

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