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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(50): e343, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594418

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S316-S317, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564302

ABSTRACT

Background Infection control measures against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within a hospital often rely on expert experience and intuition due to the lack of clear guidelines. This study surveyed current strategies for the prevention of the spread of COVID-19 in medical institutions. Methods Upon systematic review of the guidelines at the national level, 14 key topics were selected. Six hospitals were provided an open survey that assessed their responses to these topics between August 11 and 25, 2020. Using these data, an online questionnaire was developed and sent to the infection control teams of 46 hospitals in South Korea. The survey was conducted between January 31, 2021, and February 20, 2021. Results All 46 hospitals responded to the survey, and 24 hospitals (52.2%) had treated 100 or more cases of COVID-19. All hospitals operated screening clinics, and the criteria were respiratory symptoms (100%), fever (97.8%), and epidemiological association (93.5%). It was found that 89.1% (41/46) of hospitals allowed symptomatic patients to visit their general outpatient clinics if fever or respiratory symptoms were not associated with COVID-19. Most hospitals (87.2%;34/39) conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for all hospitalized patients. Moreover, 76.1% (35/46) of hospitals implemented preemptive isolation policies for hospitalized patients, of which 97.1% (34/35) were released from isolation after a single negative PCR test. A little over half of the hospitals (58.7%;27/46) treated patients that met the national criteria for release from isolation but consistently had positive PCR results. Of these hospitals, 63% (17/27) used N95/KF94 masks, and 40.7% (11/27) used surgical masks without other personal protective equipment for treating them. Most hospitals (76.9%;20/26) accommodated them in shared rooms when the cycle threshold value of the PCR test was more than a certain value (34.6%;9/26), or after a certain period that satisfied the national criteria (26.9%;7/26). Finally, 76.1% (35/46) of hospitals performed emergency procedures or operations on suspected patients. Table 1. Screening and selective treatment policy to prevent COVID-19 patients from entering the hospital Note Values are presented as number (%) Abbreviations: COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019;PCR, polymerase chain reaction 1 This question requested the respondent to select multiple items. 2 Suspected cases of COVID-19 include fever, respiratory symptoms, and epidemiological associations with COVID-19 patients. Note Values are presented as number (%) Abbreviations: COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019;PCR, polymerase chain reaction;PAPR, powered air-purifying respirator;Ct, cycle threshold 1 This question requested the respondent to select multiple items. 2 It includes infectious diseases, pulmonology, and the infection control and prevention office. 3 One hospital that wrote a non-categorical answer for the question was excluded. The hospital made a decision after discussing it with an infectious diseases specialist. Conclusion Various guidelines were being applied by each medical institution, but there was a lack of an explicit set of national guidelines to support them. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 164, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the contamination of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the management of patients with severe-to-critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to determine the necessity of coveralls and foot covers for body protection during the management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PPE samples were collected from the coveralls of physicians exiting a room after the management of a patient with severe-to-critical COVID-19 within 14 days after the patient's symptom onset. The surface of coveralls was categorized into coverall-only parts (frontal surface of the head, anterior neck, dorsal surface of the foot cover, and back and hip) and gown-covered parts (the anterior side of the forearm and the abdomen). Sampling of the high-contact surfaces in the patient's environment was performed. We attempted to identify significant differences in contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between the coverall-only and gown-covered parts. RESULTS: A total of 105 swabs from PPEs and 28 swabs from patient rooms were collected. Of the PPE swabs, only three (2.8%) swabs from the gown-covered parts were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. However, 23 of the 28 sites (82.1%) from patient rooms were contaminated. There was a significant difference in the contamination of PPE between the coverall-only and gown-covered parts (0.0 vs 10.0%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Coverall contamination rarely occurred while managing severe-to-critical COVID-19 patients housed in negative pressure rooms in the early stages of the illness. Long-sleeved gowns may be used in the management of COVID-19 patients.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0067221, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532977

ABSTRACT

Here, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of a serological assay using the nucleocapsid protein developed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection and evaluated its performance using three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), namely, Standard E 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) total antibody (Ab) ELISA (SD Biosensor), and EDI novel coronavirus COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) was expressed from plants and Escherichia coli for the detection of serum total Ab. We prospectively collected 141 serum samples from 32 patients with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 and determined the sensitivity and dynamics of their total Ab response. Specificity was evaluated using 158 prepandemic samples. To validate the assays, we evaluated the performance using two different cutoff values. The sensitivity and specificity for each assay were as follows: 92.91% and 94.30% (plant-rNP), 83.69% and 98.73% (SD Biosensor), 75.89% and 98.10% (E. coli-rNP), 76.47% and 100% (EDI-IgG), and 80.39% and 80% (EDI-IgM). The plant-based rNP showed the highest sensitivity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.980) among all the assays (P < 0.05). The seroconversion rate for total Ab increased sequentially with disease progression, with a sensitivity of 100% after 10 to 12 days of post-symptom onset (PSO) for both rNP-plant-based and SD Biosensor ELISAs. After 2 weeks of PSO, the seroconversion rates were >80% and 100% for EDI-IgM and EDI-IgG ELISA, respectively. Seroconversion occurred earlier with rNP plant-based ELISA (5 days PSO) compared with E. coli-based (7 days PSO) and SD Biosensor (8 days PSO) ELISA. We determined that rNP produced in plants enables the robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 total Abs. The assay can be used for serosurvey and complementary diagnosis of COVID-19. IMPORTANCE At present, the principal diagnostic methods for COVID-19 comprise the identification of viral nucleic acid by genetic approaches, including PCR-based techniques or next-generation sequencing. However, there is an urgent need for validated serological assays which are crucial for the understanding of immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific serological antibody assay was developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 with an overall accuracy of 93.56% using a recombinant nucleoprotein expressed from plants.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5975, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467103

ABSTRACT

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 525 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we show that CH is associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR = 1.85, 95%=1.15-2.99, p = 0.01), in particular CH characterized by non-cancer driver mutations (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.15-3.50, p = 0.01). We further explore the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH is significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.30, p = 6×10-3) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.15-2.13, p = 5×10-3). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Clonal Hematopoiesis/genetics , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clonal Hematopoiesis/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/immunology , Neoplasms/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
J Obes Metab Syndr ; 30(3): 248-260, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337811

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, preventive measures mandated by government policies have included the closure of exercise facilities and movement restriction, which can lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. We investigated the effect of these preventive measures on metabolic parameters in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders. Methods: In this retrospective, observational study of patients who visited the hospital at least twice a year for the past 4 years, changes in cardiometabolic factors during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019-2020) were compared with changes in the same cohort at the same annual time points during the previous seasons of 2016-2019. Results: A total of 1,485 individuals with a mean age of 61.8±11.7 years were included in the analyses. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients whose metabolic syndrome worsened increased significantly by 21% compared with the 2018-2019 season. Body mass index increased by 0.09±1.16 kg/m2 in the 2019-2020 pandemic period, whereas it decreased by -0.39±3.03 kg/m2 in 2018-2019 and by -0.34±2.18 kg/m2 in 2017-2018 (both P<0.05). Systolic blood pressure increased by 2.6±18.2 mmHg in the COVID-19 pandemic period, while it decreased in the three antecedent seasons (all P<0.05). Lipid profiles worsened in the pandemic period compared with the previous years. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score also increased significantly. Conclusion: Nationwide strategies to maintain cardiometabolic health are necessary during contagious disease pandemics like COVID-19 to mitigate the adverse health effects of pandemic-preventative strategies.

8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(7): 864-868, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316684

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) can provide prompt, accurate identification of infectious organisms and be a key component of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs. However, their use is less widespread in Asia Pacific than western countries. Cost can be prohibitive, particularly in less resource-replete settings. A selective approach is required, possibly focusing on the initiation of antimicrobials, for differentiating bacterial versus viral infections and identifying locally relevant tropical diseases. Across Asia Pacific, more data are needed on RDT use within AMS, focusing on the impact on antimicrobial usage, patient morbidity and mortality, and cost effectiveness. Moreover, in the absence of formal guidelines, regional consensus statements to guide clinical practice are warranted. These will provide a regionally relevant definition for RDT; greater consensus on its role in managing infections; advice on implementation and overcoming barriers; and guidance on optimizing human resource capacity. By addressing these issues, the outcomes of AMS programs should improve.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Asia , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Humans
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): e132-e140, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was introduced in Korea early with a large outbreak in mid-February. We reviewed the public health interventions used during the COVID-19 outbreak and describe the impact on seasonal influenza activity in Korea. METHODS: National response strategies, public health interventions and daily COVID-19-confirmed cases in Korea were reviewed during the pandemic. National influenza surveillance data were compared between 7 sequential seasons. Characteristics of each season, including rate of influenza-like illness (ILI), duration of epidemic, date of termination of epidemic, distribution of influenza virus strain, and hospitalization, were analyzed. RESULTS: After various public health interventions including enforced public education on hand hygiene, cough etiquette, staying at home with respiratory symptoms, universal mask use in public places, refrain from nonessential social activities, and school closures the duration of the influenza epidemic in 2019/2020 decreased by 6-12 weeks and the influenza activity peak rated 49.8 ILIs/1000 visits compared to 71.9-86.2 ILIs/1000 visits in previous seasons. During the period of enforced social distancing from weeks 9-17 of 2020, influenza hospitalization cases were 11.9-26.9-fold lower compared with previous seasons. During the 2019/2020 season, influenza B accounted for only 4%, in contrast to previous seasons in which influenza B accounted for 26.6-54.9% of all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to activate a high-level national response not only led to a decrease in COVID-19 but also a substantial decrease in seasonal influenza activity. Interventions applied to control COVID-19 may serve as useful strategies for prevention and control of influenza in upcoming seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Public Health , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
10.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065202

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(578)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007317

ABSTRACT

Stereotypic antibody clonotypes exist in healthy individuals and may provide protective immunity against viral infections by neutralization. We observed that 13 of 17 patients with COVID-19 had stereotypic variable heavy chain (VH) antibody clonotypes directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These antibody clonotypes were composed of immunoglobulin heavy variable 3-53 (IGHV3-53) or IGHV3-66 and immunoglobulin heavy joining 6 (IGHJ6) genes. These clonotypes included IgM, IgG3, IgG1, IgA1, IgG2, and IgA2 subtypes and had minimal somatic mutations, which suggested swift class switching after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The different IGHV chains were paired with diverse light chains resulting in binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Human antibodies specific for the RBD can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting entry into host cells. We observed that one of these stereotypic neutralizing antibodies could inhibit viral replication in vitro using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. We also found that these VH clonotypes existed in 6 of 10 healthy individuals, with IgM isotypes predominating. These findings suggest that stereotypic clonotypes can develop de novo from naïve B cells and not from memory B cells established from prior exposure to similar viruses. The expeditious and stereotypic expansion of these clonotypes may have occurred in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 because they were already present.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Clone Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mutation/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 901, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) presents heterogeneously, owing to the differences in underlying host conditions and immune responses. Although Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important in recognizing S. aureus, its function during S. aureus infection remains controversial. We aimed to examine the association of TLR2 expression and associated cytokine responses with clinical SAB outcomes. METHODS: Patients from a prospective SAB cohort at two tertiary-care medical centers were enrolled. Blood was sampled at several timepoints (≤5 d, 6-9 d, 10-13 d, 14-19 d, and ≥ 20 d) after SAB onset. TLR2 mRNA levels were determined via real-time PCR and serum tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-10 levels were analyzed with multiplex-high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent ELISA. RESULTS: TLR2 levels varied among 59 SAB patients. On days 2-5, TLR2 levels were significantly higher in SAB survivors than in healthy controls (p = 0.040) and slightly but not significantly higher than non-survivors (p = 0.120), and SAB patients dying within 7 d had lower TLR2 levels than survivors (P = 0.077) although statistically insignificant. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors on days 2-5 post-bacteremia (P = 0.010 and P = 0.021, respectively), and those dying within 7 d of SAB (n = 3) displayed significantly higher IL-10/TNF-α ratios than the survivors did (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: TLR2 downregulation and IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations suggestive of immune dysregulation during early bacteremia may be associated with mortality from SAB. TLR2 expression levels and associated cytokine reactions during early-phase SAB may be potential prognostic factors in SAB, although larger studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/metabolism , Bacteremia/mortality , Cytokines/metabolism , Down-Regulation/genetics , Staphylococcal Infections/metabolism , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Survivors , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988082

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(47): e409, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963329

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, there are growing concerns about patients' mental health. We investigated psychological problems in COVID-19 patients assessed with self-reported questionnaires including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised Korean version. Ten patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia without complications underwent self-reported questionnaires about 1 month after discharge. Of them, 10% reported depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while 50% had depression during the treatment. Perceived stigma and history of psychiatric treatment affected PTSD symptom severity, consistent with previous emerging infectious diseases. Survivors also reported that they were concerned about infecting others and being discriminated and that they chose to avoid others after discharge. Further support and strategy to minimize their psychosocial difficulties after discharge should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Survivors/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
16.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955710

ABSTRACT

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. 1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. 2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. 7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6×10 -3 ) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5×10 -3 ). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868883

ABSTRACT

We investigated the kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibodies in 7 asymptomatic persons and 11 patients with pneumonia. The geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies declined from 219.4 at 2 months to 143.7 at 5 months after infection, indicating a waning antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans
19.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(1): 11-14, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798105

ABSTRACT

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results. The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Kinetics , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Reinfection , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
20.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(4): 771-781, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Current evidence supports lung ultrasound as a point-ofcare alternative diagnostic tool for various respiratory diseases. We sought to determine the utility of lung ultrasound for early detection of pneumonia and for assessment of respiratory failure among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Six patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were enrolled. All had undergone chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) on the day of admission and underwent multiple point-of-care lung ultrasound scans over the course of their hospitalization. RESULTS: Lung ultrasound detected early abnormal findings of representative B-lines in a patient with a normal chest X-ray, corresponding to ground-glass opacities on the chest CT scan. The ultrasound findings improved as her clinical condition improved and her viral load decreased. In another minimally symptomatic patient without significant chest X-ray findings, the ultrasound showed B-lines, an early sign of pneumonia before abnormalities were detected on the chest CT scan. In two critically ill patients, ultrasound was performed to assess for evaluation of disease severity. In both patients, the clinicians conducted emergency rapid sequence intubation based on the ultrasound findings without awaiting the laboratory results and radiological reports. In two children, ultrasound was used to assess the improvement in their pneumonia, thus avoiding further imaging tests such as chest CT. CONCLUSION: Lung ultrasound is feasible and useful as a rapid, sensitive, and affordable point-of-care screening tool to detect pneumonia and assess the severity of respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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