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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266317, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between renal function and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertensive crisis remains unclear. We aimed to identify the impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on all-cause mortality in patients with hypertensive crisis visiting the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This retrospective study included patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the ED between 2016 and 2019 for hypertensive crisis (systolic blood pressure ≥180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥110 mmHg). They were classified into four groups according to the eGFR at admission to the ED: ≥90, 60-89, 30-59, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. RESULTS: Among the 4,821 patients, 46.7% and 5.8% had an eGFR of ≥90 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Patients with lower eGFR were older and more likely to have comorbidities. The 3-year all-cause mortality rates were 7.7% and 41.9% in those with an eGFR ≥90 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, those with an eGFR of 30-59 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.54) and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.71-3.24) had significantly higher 3-year all-cause mortality risks than those with an eGFR of ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients with an eGFR of 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a higher mortality (21.1%) than those with an eGFR of ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (7.7%); however, the difference was not significant (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.94-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Renal impairment is common in patients with hypertensive crisis who visit the ED. A strong independent association was observed between decreased eGFR and all-cause mortality in these patients. eGFR provides useful prognostic information and permits the early identification of patients with hypertensive crisis with an increased mortality risk. Intensive treatment and follow-up strategies are needed for patients with a decreased eGFR who visit the ED.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Pressure , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
2.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(4): e31901, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV disproportionately impacts Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and targeting the primary relationship (ie, couples) using mobile technology for health holds promise for HIV prevention. Web-based recruitment of MSM is commonly employed in HIV prevention and intervention research. However, little known about recruiting Black MSM couples on the internet in the United States. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the process of recruiting Black MSM couples over social networking and dating apps frequented by MSM. We describe the activities for recruiting, screening, and enrolling participants as part of a randomized trial employing a multipronged recruitment approach. METHODS: Black MSM in couples were recruited via three apps (ie, Jack'd, Adam4Adam, and Growlr) between May 2020 and March 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Black MSM couples were eligible if one or both partners are Black, MSM, and living with HIV, and if both partners were 18 years or older, and have been together for at least 2 months in what they both consider a primary relationship (ie, one in which both partners reported feeling most committed to over any other partner or relationship). RESULTS: A total of 10 Black MSM couples (n=20) were enrolled via social networking apps. App recruitment activities were a combination of passive (eg, in-app advertisements) and active (eg, direct messaging of users) engagement. Recruitment approaches varied by the social networking app owing to differences in app features. A full-time recruiter experienced challenges such as bugs (ie, technical errors in computer program or system), navigating technical requirements specific to each app, and web-based harassment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges, it was possible to recruit Black MSM couples virtually into research as part of a multipronged recruitment strategy. We identify tips for using web-based dating and other social networking apps as part of a recruitment strategy in future research with Black MSM couples.

3.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 25(7): 1129-1130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686279

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has sparked great interest in strengthening the immune system, especially by the consumption of widely available natural dietary supplements. Because of this popularity, it was suggested that the sales of these products would grow significantly in the year 2021, especially for those who are unable or unwilling to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Among the many botanicals, Sambucus nigra L. (Elderberry) and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Echinacea) have especially shown great popularity. Various in vivo and in vitro tests of S. nigra and E. purpurea extracts and constituents have confirmed the botanicals' influence on proinflammatory cytokines, viral infections, and flu symptoms, proving their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects. Although there have been promising results with S. nigra and E. purpurea containing supplements, thorough monitoring of the sanitary production, demand, and related side effects after consumption is required. Further research and development of the supplements in accordance with the pandemic are also advised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echinacea , Adjuvants, Immunologic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immune System , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
4.
Res Soc Stratif Mobil ; 75: 100640, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340827

ABSTRACT

Using a unique cross-national dataset, we explore the interplay between household income, coronavirus-induced anxiety, national context, and self-rated health (SRH) across dozens of countries among more than 13,500 older adults. Based on multilevel models, we find that the emotional anxiety due to COVID-19 negatively predicts SRH, net of country random effects. And holding constant coronavirus-related stress and background controls at both individual and contextual (country) levels, higher income is positively associated with better subjective health. We also report cross-level interactions. The income-health gradient is stronger in countries with higher numbers of coronavirus-related deaths and, to lesser extent, infected cases. That is, health benefits of higher income are more pronounced in countries hit harder by the pandemic. Our study shows that globally income inequality exacerbates the unequal health consequences of COVID-19 for older segments of the population especially vulnerable to the disease.

5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251801

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first identified in the 1930s and it imposes a major economic burden on the poultry industry. In particular, GI-19 lineage has spread globally and has evolved constantly since it was first detected in China. In this study, we analyzed S1 gene sequences from 60 IBVs isolated in South Korea. Two IBV lineages, GI-15 and GI-19, were identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were six distinct subgroups (KM91-like, K40/09-like, and QX-like I to IV) of the South Korean GI-19 IBVs. Among them, QX-type III and IV subgroups, which are phylogenetically different from those reported in South Korea in the past, accounted for more than half of the total. Moreover, the phylogeographic analysis of the QX-like subgroups indicated at least four distinct introductions of GI-19 IBVs into South Korea during 2001-2020. The efficacy of commercialized vaccines against the recently introduced QX-like subgroups should be verified, and continuous international surveillance efforts and quarantine procedures should be enhanced to prevent the incursion of viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genomics , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Sequence Homology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(5): 400-406, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-28626

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of chest CT to differentiate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in non-high-epidemic area in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 21 patients clinically suspected COVID-19 pneumonia and underwent chest CT more than 3 days after the symptom onset: six patients confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 15 patients proved uninfected. Using a Likert scale and its receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, two radiologists (R1/R2) evaluated the diagnostic performance of the five CT criteria: (1) ground glass opacity (GGO)-predominant lesions, (2) GGO- and peripheral-predominant lesions, (3) bilateral GGO-predominant lesions; (4) bilateral GGO- and peripheral-predominant lesions, and (5) bilateral GGO- and peripheral-predominant lesions without nodules, airway abnormalities, pleural effusion, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. RESULTS: All patients confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia had bilateral GGO- and peripheral-predominant lesions without airway abnormalities, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. The five CT criteria showed moderate to excellent diagnostic performance with area under the curves (AUCs) ranging 0.77-0.88 for R1 and 0.78-0.92 for R2. The criterion (e) showed the highest AUC. CONCLUSION: Chest CT would play a supplemental role to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from other respiratory diseases presenting with similar symptoms in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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