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3.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1629, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1667311

ABSTRACT

This study quantitatively analyzes the economic impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis on Korea and other major nations using the standard Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model. Based on the GTAP9a database, we created three scenarios that differed in the severity of the impact of COVID-19, divided the economic shocks witnessed in each scenario into three stages, and applied them at varying degrees to six regions and 10 industry sectors. The results revealed an increase in investments and a decrease in GDP, income, production, and exports, with private household expenditure and export value showing the largest declines in all regions. Under Scenario BA, the export value of the tourism industry decreased by approximately 28%, and private household expenditure on tourism industry imports declined by 33.4% on average across all regions. Conversely, government expenditure increased following the economic recession and increased tax revenue. The results showed similar trends across regions and sectors, with only slight variances according to each region’s economic structural characteristics. By shedding light on proposals and approaches to overcome the global economic crisis amid the ongoing pandemic, this study provides baseline data for devising more practical, detailed response plans and policy directions for potential future calamities.

4.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 257-266, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have hypothesised that dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns and COVID-19. METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA) with substantial exposure to COVID-19 patients completed a web-based survey from 17 July to 25 September 2020. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, dietary information, and COVID-19 outcomes. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the association between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection, severity, and duration. RESULTS: There were 568 COVID-19 cases and 2316 controls. Among the 568 cases, 138 individuals had moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity whereas 430 individuals had very mild to mild COVID-19 severity. After adjusting for important confounders, participants who reported following 'plant-based diets' and 'plant-based diets or pescatarian diets' had 73% (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.81) and 59% (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.99) lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity, respectively, compared with participants who did not follow these diets. Compared with participants who reported following 'plant-based diets', those who reported following 'low carbohydrate, high protein diets' had greater odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.13 to 13.24). No association was observed between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection or duration. CONCLUSION: In six countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against severe COVID-19.

5.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 4(1): 132-139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sleep habits and burnout have been shown to be associated with increase in infectious diseases, but it is unknown if these factors are associated with risk of COVID-19. We assessed whether sleep and self-reported burnout may be risk factors for COVID-19 among high-risk healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: From 17 July to 25 September 2020, a web-based survey was administered to HCWs in six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA) with a high frequency of workplace exposure. Participants provided information on demographics, sleep (number of sleep hours at night, daytime napping hours, sleep problems), burnout from work and COVID-19 exposures. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to evaluate the associations between sleep, burnout and COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 2884 exposed HCWs, there were 568 COVID-19 cases and 2316 controls. After adjusting for confounders, 1-hour longer sleep duration at night was associated with 12% lower odds of COVID-19 (p=0.003). Daytime napping hours was associated with 6% higher odds, but the association varied by countries, with a non-significant inverse association in Spain. Compared with having no sleep problems, having three sleep problems was associated with 88% greater odds of COVID-19. Reporting burnout 'every day' was associated with greater odds of COVID-19 (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.31, p trend across categories=0.001), longer duration (OR: 2.98, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.05, p trend=0.02) and severity (OR: 3.26, 95% CI 1.25 to 8.48, p trend=0.02) compared with reporting no burnout. These associations remained significant after adjusting for frequency of COVID-19 exposures. CONCLUSIONS: In six countries, longer sleep duration was associated with lower odds of COVID-19, but the association with daytime nap may not be consistent across countries. Greater sleep problems and high level of burnout were robustly associated with greater odds of COVID-19. Sleep and burnout may be risk factors for COVID-19 in high-risk HCWs.

6.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(175): 20200954, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099667

ABSTRACT

One of the more widely advocated solutions for slowing down the spread of COVID-19 has been automated contact tracing. Since proximity data can be collected by personal mobile devices, the natural proposal has been to use this for automated contact tracing providing a major gain over a manual implementation. In this work, we study the characteristics of voluntary and automated contact tracing and its effectiveness for mapping the spread of a pandemic due to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We highlight the infrastructure and social structures required for automated contact tracing to work. We display the vulnerabilities of the strategy to inadequate sampling of the population, which results in the inability to sufficiently determine significant contact with infected individuals. Of crucial importance will be the participation of a significant fraction of the population for which we derive a minimum threshold. We conclude that relying largely on automated contact tracing without population-wide participation to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic can be counterproductive and allow the pandemic to spread unchecked. The simultaneous implementation of various mitigation methods along with automated contact tracing is necessary for reaching an optimal solution to contain the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread implementation of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the COVID-19 pandemic, there are surprisingly few studies of its impact. To assess the risk, severity and duration of COVID-19 in relation to access to PPE in at-risk healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: From 17 July to 25 September 2020, at-risk physicians and nurses registered as a provider in the Survey Healthcare Globus network in six countries (the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and USA) were identified based on adult medical specialties with frequent and close contact with patients with COVID-19. Exposed HCWs completed a detailed questionnaire including demographics, medical, social and lifestyle factors. COVID-19 cases were defined as COVID-19 symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, loss of taste or smell) and asymptomatic COVID-19 test positive cases. RESULTS: Among 2884 exposed HCWs (94% medical doctors and 6% nurses or physician assistants), there were 514 reports of COVID-19 illness and 54 asymptomatic COVID-19 test positive cases. COVID-19 risk was significantly associated with close contact with COVID-19 cases both inside and outside the workplace, number of work shifts and hours worked per week. Limited access to PPE compared with access to a fresh mask, gown and gloves and face shield with each patient encounter was associated with a 2.2-fold to 22-fold increased risk of reporting COVID-19 symptoms (p<0.0001), a pattern consistent across all six countries. Further, limited access to PPE was associated with symptom duration greater than 2 weeks and the presence of moderate to severe symptoms such as difficulty breathing, abnormal chest X-ray, low oxygen saturations, respiratory distress and acute lung injury. CONCLUSION: In six countries, less access to PPE was strongly associated with both increased risk of reporting COVID-19 illness as well as more prolonged and severe disease course in frontline HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962376

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Progression of COVID-19 to severe disease and death is insufficiently understood. OBJECTIVE: Summarize the prevalence of risk factors and adverse outcomes and determine their associations in COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and Web of Science for case-series and observational studies of hospitalized COVID-19 patients through August 31, 2020. Data were analyzed by fixed-effects meta-analysis using Shore's adjusted confidence intervals to address heterogeneity. RESULTS: Seventy-seven studies comprising 38906 hospitalized patients met inclusion criteria; 21468 from the US-Europe and 9740 from China. Overall prevalence of death [% (95% CI)] from COVID-19 was 20% (18-23%); 23% (19-27%) in the US and Europe and 11% (7-16%) for China. Of those that died, 85% were aged≥60 years, 66% were males, and 66%, 44%, 39%, 37%, and 27% had hypertension, smoking history, diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The case fatality risk [%(95% CI)] were 52% (46-60) for heart disease, 51% (43-59) for COPD, 48% (37-63) for chronic kidney disease (CKD), 39% for chronic liver disease (CLD), 28% (23-36%) for hypertension, and 24% (17-33%) for diabetes. Summary relative risk (sRR) of death were higher for age≥60 years [sRR = 3.6; 95% CI: 3.0-4.4], males [1.3; 1.2-1.4], smoking history [1.3; 1.1-1.6], COPD [1.7; 1.4-2.0], hypertension [1.8; 1.6-2.0], diabetes [1.5; 1.4-1.7], heart disease [2.1; 1.8-2.4], CKD [2.5; 2.1-3.0]. The prevalence of hypertension (55%), diabetes (33%), smoking history (23%) and heart disease (17%) among the COVID-19 hospitalized patients in the US were substantially higher than that of the general US population, suggesting increased susceptibility to infection or disease progression for the individuals with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Public health screening for COVID-19 can be prioritized based on risk-groups. Appropriately addressing the modifiable risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and diabetes could reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19; public messaging can be accordingly adapted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Age Factors , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Smoking/epidemiology , United States
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