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1.
Heliyon ; : e10270, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004106

ABSTRACT

The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic will be better understood through serosurveys and SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples will play a central role in large scale serosurveillance by simplifying biological specimen collection and transportation, especially in Canada. Direct comparative performance data on multiplex SARS-CoV-2 assays resulting from identical DBS samples are currently lacking. In our study, we aimed to provide performance data for the BioPlex 2200 SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Bio-Rad), V-PLEX SARS-CoV-2 Panel 2 IgG (MSD), and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche) commercial assays, as well as for two highly scalable in-house assays (University of Ottawa and Mount Sinai Hospital protocols) to assess their suitability for DBS-based SARS-CoV-2 DBS serosurveillance. These assays were evaluated against identical panels of DBS samples collected from convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 97) and individuals undergoing routine sexually transmitted and bloodborne infection (STBBI) testing prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 90). Our findings suggest that several assays are suitable for serosurveillance (sensitivity >97% and specificity >98%). In contrast to other reports, we did not observe an improvement in performance using multiple antigen consensus-based rules to establish overall seropositivity. This may be due to our DBS panel which consisted of samples collected from convalescent COVID-19 patients with significant anti-spike, -receptor binding domain (RBD), and -nucleocapsid antibody titers. This study demonstrates that biological specimens collected as DBS coupled with one of several readily available assays are useful for large-scale COVID-19 serosurveillance.

2.
Radiology case reports ; 17(10):3659-3662, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1971038

ABSTRACT

Myositis and myonecrosis are rare sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, it has not been seen in muscles of the head and neck. We present a 22-year-old male with 4 months of retroauricular headaches following COVID-19 infection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rim-enhancing fluid collections in the bilateral masticator spaces which were sampled by fine-needle aspiration. We also discuss this case in the context of the current understanding of COVID-19-related myositis.

3.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(10): 3659-3662, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967028

ABSTRACT

Myositis and myonecrosis are rare sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Until now, it has not been seen in muscles of the head and neck. We present a 22-year-old male with 4 months of retroauricular headaches following COVID-19 infection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rim-enhancing fluid collections in the bilateral masticator spaces which were sampled by fine-needle aspiration. We also discuss this case in the context of the current understanding of COVID-19-related myositis.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(4): e29492, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent shifts to telemedicine and remote patient monitoring demonstrate the potential for new technology to transform health systems; yet, methods to design for inclusion and resilience are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to design and implement a participatory framework to produce effective health care solutions through co-design with diverse stakeholders. METHODS: We developed a design framework to cocreate solutions to locally prioritized health and communication problems focused on cancer care. The framework is premised on the framing and discovery of problems through community engagement and lead-user innovation with the hypothesis that diversity and inclusion in the co-design process generate more innovative and resilient solutions. Discovery, design, and development were implemented through structured phases with design studios at various locations in urban and rural Kentucky, including Appalachia, each building from prior work. In the final design studio, working prototypes were developed and tested. Outputs were assessed using the System Usability Scale as well as semistructured user feedback. RESULTS: We co-designed, developed, and tested a mobile app (myPath) and service model for distress surveillance and cancer care coordination following the LAUNCH (Linking and Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health) framework. The problem of awareness, navigation, and communication through cancer care was selected by the community after framing areas for opportunity based on significant geographic disparities in cancer and health burden resource and broadband access. The codeveloped digital myPath app showed the highest perceived combined usability (mean 81.9, SD 15.2) compared with the current gold standard of distress management for patients with cancer, the paper-based National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer (mean 74.2, SD 15.8). Testing of the System Usability Scale subscales showed that the myPath app had significantly better usability than the paper Distress Thermometer (t63=2.611; P=.01), whereas learnability did not differ between the instruments (t63=-0.311; P=.76). Notable differences by patient and provider scoring and feedback were found. CONCLUSIONS: Participatory problem definition and community-based co-design, design-with methods, may produce more acceptable and effective solutions than traditional design-for approaches.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Kentucky , Neoplasms/therapy , Rural Population
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842919

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe COVID-19 pandemic has an excessive impact on residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF), causing high morbidity and mortality. Early detection of presymptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases supports the timely implementation of effective outbreak control measures but repetitive screening of residents and staff incurs costs and discomfort. Administration of vaccines is key to controlling the pandemic but the robustness and longevity of the antibody response, correlation of neutralising antibodies with commercial antibody assays, and the efficacy of current vaccines for emerging COVID-19 variants require further study. We propose to monitor SARS-CoV-2 in site-specific sewage as an early warning system for COVID-19 in LTCF and to study the immune response of the staff and residents in LTCF to COVID-19 vaccines.Methods and analysisThe study includes two parts: (1) detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCF site-specific sewage samples using a molecular assay followed by notification of Public Health within 24 hours as an early warning system for appropriate outbreak investigation and control measures and cost–benefit analyses of the system and (2) testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff and residents in LTCF at various time points before and after COVID-19 vaccination using commercial assays and neutralising antibody testing performed at a reference laboratory.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta Health Research Ethics Board with considerations to minimise risk and discomforts for the participants. Early recognition of a COVID-19 case in an LTCF might prevent further transmission in residents and staff. There was no direct benefit identified to the participants of the immunity study. Anticipated dissemination of information includes a summary report to the immunity study participants, sharing of study data with the scientific community through the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force, and prompt dissemination of study results in meeting s and manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals.

6.
Can J Public Health ; 113(2): 185-195, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in education workers and the factors associated with infection between March 2020 and July 2021. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of education workers working ≥8 h per week in Ontario, Canada. Participants self-reported results of tests for SARS-CoV-2 and completed online surveys about demographic information, exposures, and vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2. Participants submitted self-collected dried blood spots. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike, the receptor binding domain of spike, and nucleocapsid were assessed. Multivariable regression was used to assess risk factors for infection. RESULTS: Of 2834 participants, 85% were female, 81% were teaching staff, and 86% had received at least one dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Of the 1983 who had been tested via a respiratory specimen, 4.9% reported a positive test. Five additional participants had serologic testing suggestive of a previous infection (3.6% overall incidence). In multivariable regression analysis, risk factors for infection included exposure to a SARS-CoV-2 infected adult (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 13.6; 95% confidence interval 8.6, 21.3) or child (aIRR 2.3; 1.3, 4.2) in the household, or school student (aIRR 1.9; 1.2, 3.2), or travel outside the province within 14 days of testing (aIRR 6.0; 1.5, 23.6). CONCLUSION: In the first 18 months of the pandemic, education workers had a similar risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 as other Ontario residents. Practicing protective measures whenever any household member has been exposed to a possible case and at all times when exposed to anyone from outside the home would help reduce the risk of infection.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Estimer l'incidence du SRAS-CoV-2 chez les travailleuses et les travailleurs en éducation et les facteurs associés à l'infection entre mars 2020 et juillet 2021. MéTHODE: Étude prospective de cohortes auprès de travailleuses et de travailleurs en éducation travaillant ≥8 heures par semaine en Ontario, au Canada. Les participants ont autodéclaré les résultats de tests de dépistage du SRAS-CoV-2 et répondu à des questionnaires en ligne portant sur leurs données démographiques, leurs expositions au SRAS-CoV-2 et leurs vaccins contre le virus. Les participants ont soumis des gouttes de sang séché autoprélevées. Les anticorps à la protéine S du SRAS-CoV-2, le domaine de liaison aux récepteurs de la protéine S et la nucléocapside ont été évalués. Une régression multivariée a servi à évaluer les facteurs de risque d'infection. RéSULTATS: Sur les 2 834 participants, 85 % étaient des femmes, 81 % étaient des enseignants et 86 % avaient reçu au moins une dose de vaccin contre le SRAS-CoV-2. Sur les 1 983 personnes ayant été testées au moyen d'un prélèvement respiratoire, 4,9 % ont déclaré un test positif. Chez cinq autres participants, un test sérologique a indiqué une infection antérieure (incidence globale de 3,6 %). Selon l'analyse de régression multivariée, les facteurs de risque d'infection étaient l'exposition à un adulte infecté par le SRAS-CoV-2 (rapport de taux d'incidence ajusté [RTIa] 13,6; intervalle de confiance de 95 % 8,6, 21,3) ou à un enfant infecté (RTIa 2,3; 1,3, 4,2) au sein du ménage, l'exposition à un élève infecté (RTIa 1,9; 1,2, 3,2) ou un déplacement hors province dans les 14 jours ayant précédé le test (RTIa 6,0; 1,5, 23,6). CONCLUSION: Au cours des 18 premiers mois de la pandémie, le risque d'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les travailleuses et les travailleurs en éducation était semblable au risque des autres résidents de l'Ontario. L'application de mesures de protection chaque fois qu'un membre du ménage a été exposé à un cas possible, et en tout temps lorsqu'on est exposé à une personne de l'extérieur du ménage, contribuerait à réduire le risque d'infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
7.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 242, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751765

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane (SFN), the principal biologically active phytochemical derived from glucoraphanin, the naturally occurring precursor present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of six strains of SARS-CoV-2, including Delta and Omicron, as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18-hACE2 mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN should be explored as a potential agent for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Isothiocyanates/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfoxides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Synergism , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
8.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(3): e1380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750347

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Antibody testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been instrumental in detecting previous exposures and analyzing vaccine-elicited immune responses. Here, we describe a scalable solution to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, discriminate between natural infection- and vaccination-induced responses, and assess antibody-mediated inhibition of the spike-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction. Methods: We developed methods and reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The main assays focus on the parallel detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)Gs against the spike trimer, its receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N). We automated a surrogate neutralisation (sn)ELISA that measures inhibition of ACE2-spike or -RBD interactions by antibodies. The assays were calibrated to a World Health Organization reference standard. Results: Our single-point IgG-based ELISAs accurately distinguished non-infected and infected individuals. For seroprevalence assessment (in a non-vaccinated cohort), classifying a sample as positive if antibodies were detected for ≥ 2 of the 3 antigens provided the highest specificity. In vaccinated cohorts, increases in anti-spike and -RBD (but not -N) antibodies are observed. We present detailed protocols for serum/plasma or dried blood spots analysis performed manually and on automated platforms. The snELISA can be performed automatically at single points, increasing its scalability. Conclusions: Measuring antibodies to three viral antigens and identify neutralising antibodies capable of disrupting spike-ACE2 interactions in high-throughput enables large-scale analyses of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The reagents are available to enable scaling up of standardised serological assays, permitting inter-laboratory data comparison and aggregation.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320639

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus represents an unprecedented crisis for our planet. It is a bane of the über connected world that we live in that this virus has affected almost all countries and caused mortality and economic upheaval at a scale whose effects are going to be felt for generations to come. While we can all be buoyed at the pace at which vaccines have been developed and brought to market, there are still challenges ahead for all countries to get their populations vaccinated equitably and effectively. This paper provides an overview of ongoing immunization efforts in various countries. In this early draft, we have identified a few key factors that we use to review different countries' current COVID-19 immunization strategies and their strengths and draw conclusions so that policymakers worldwide can learn from them. Our paper focuses on processes related to vaccine approval, allocation and prioritization, distribution strategies, population to vaccine ratio, vaccination governance, accessibility and use of digital solutions, and government policies. The statistics and numbers are dated as per the draft date [June 24th, 2021].

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308460

ABSTRACT

The true severity of infection due to COVID-19 is under-represented because it is based on only those who are tested. Although nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAAT) are the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnostic testing, serological assays provide better population-level SARS-CoV-2 prevalence estimates. Implementing large sero-surveys present several logistical challenges within Canada due its unique geography including rural and remote communities. Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a practical solution but comparative performance data on SARS-CoV-2 serological tests using DBS is currently lacking. Here we present test performance data from a well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 DBS panel sent to laboratories across Canada representing 10 commercial and 2 in-house developed tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Three commercial assays identified all positive and negative DBS correctly corresponding to a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI = 72.2, 100). Two in-house assays also performed equally well. In contrast, several commercial assays could not achieve a sensitivity greater than 40% or a negative predictive value greater than 60%. Our findings represent the foundation for future validation studies on DBS specimens that will play a central role in strengthening Canada’s public health policy in response to COVID-19.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556871

ABSTRACT

The true severity of infection due to COVID-19 is under-represented because it is based on only those who are tested. Although nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAAT) are the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnostic testing, serological assays provide better population-level SARS-CoV-2 prevalence estimates. Implementing large sero-surveys present several logistical challenges within Canada due its unique geography including rural and remote communities. Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a practical solution but comparative performance data on SARS-CoV-2 serological tests using DBS is currently lacking. Here we present test performance data from a well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 DBS panel sent to laboratories across Canada representing 10 commercial and 2 in-house developed tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Three commercial assays identified all positive and negative DBS correctly corresponding to a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI = 72.2, 100). Two in-house assays also performed equally well. In contrast, several commercial assays could not achieve a sensitivity greater than 40% or a negative predictive value greater than 60%. Our findings represent the foundation for future validation studies on DBS specimens that will play a central role in strengthening Canada's public health policy in response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Humans , ROC Curve , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Analyst ; 146(15): 4905-4917, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305374

ABSTRACT

We report on the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors and matching ELISAs for the detection of nucleocapsid and spike antibodies specific against the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) in human serum, plasma and dried blood spots (DBS). When exposed to SARS-CoV-2 or a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the immune system responds by expressing antibodies at levels that can be detected and monitored to identify the fraction of the population potentially immunized against SARS-CoV-2 and support efforts to deploy a vaccine strategically. A SPR sensor coated with a peptide monolayer and functionalized with various sources of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant proteins expressed in different cell lines detected human anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in clinical samples. Nucleocapsid expressed in different cell lines did not significantly change the sensitivity of the assays, whereas the use of a CHO cell line to express spike ectodomain led to excellent performance. This bioassay was performed on a portable SPR instrument capable of measuring 4 biological samples within 30 minutes of sample/sensor contact and the chip could be regenerated at least 9 times. Multi-site validation was then performed with in-house and commercial ELISA, which revealed excellent cross-correlations with Pearson's coefficients exceeding 0.85 in all cases, for measurements in DBS and plasma. This strategy paves the way to point-of-care and rapid testing for antibodies in the context of viral infection and vaccine efficacy monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Surface Plasmon Resonance
13.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(7): 1635-1639, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252109

ABSTRACT

With growing number of pediatric cases of COVID-19, a unique hyper-inflammatory syndrome, linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection, has emerged in children referred to as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This Kawasaki Disease (KD)-like illness has been described across the world. This syndrome shares features of KD, toxic shock syndrome, and macrophage activation syndrome and is associated with significantly elevated inflammatory markers. Everyday there are new data emerging improving the care of these patients. The Advanced Cardiac Therapies Improving Outcomes Network (ACTION) is a collaborative network designed to improve the outcomes of pediatric patients with end-stage heart failure and involves centers from across North America. The committee gathered information concerning COVID-19 anticoagulation practices at various centers and harmonized the data to formulate a set of recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
14.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243869

ABSTRACT

STEMI can be the presenting diagnosis in adults with COVID-19; presented is a case of a 15-year-old girl with coronary thrombosis-induced STEMI associated with COVID-19. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is an identified presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 in adults but has not been reported in children. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl with a coronary thrombosis-induced ST-elevation MI in the setting of acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, not associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The patient presented with chest pain, ST elevation, and myocardial dysfunction. Coronary angiography identified thrombosis treated with anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. MI must be considered in children who present with coronavirus disease 2019-associated myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Coronary Angiography , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis
15.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(4): e00343, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and shedding of fecal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA indicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and likely infectivity. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence and the duration of shedding of fecal RNA in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese databases Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data up to June 2020 were searched for studies evaluating fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including anal and rectal samples, in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The pooled prevalence of fecal RNA in patients with detectable respiratory RNA was estimated. The days of shedding and days to loss of fecal and respiratory RNA from presentation were compared. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies (N = 1,636) met criteria. The pooled prevalence of fecal RNA in COVID-19 patients was 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34%-52%). Higher proportion of patients with GI symptoms (52.4% vs 25.9%, odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7) compared with no GI symptoms, specifically diarrhea (51.6% vs 24.0%, odds ratio = 3.0, 95% CI 1.9-4.8), had detectable fecal RNA. After loss of respiratory RNA, 27% (95% CI 15%-44%) of the patients had persistent shedding of fecal RNA. Days of RNA shedding in the feces were longer than respiratory samples (21.8 vs 14.7 days, mean difference = 7.1 days, 95% CI 1.2-13.0). Furthermore, days to loss of fecal RNA lagged respiratory RNA by a mean of 4.8 days (95% CI 2.2-7.5). DISCUSSION: Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is commonly detected in COVID-19 patients with a 3-fold increased risk with diarrhea. Shedding of fecal RNA lasted more than 3 weeks after presentation and a week after last detectable respiratory RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Shedding
16.
chemRxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-8361

ABSTRACT

We report on the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors and matching ELISAs for the detection of nucleocapsid and spike antibodies specific against the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) in human serum, plasma and dried blood spots (DBS). When exposed to SARS-CoV-2 or a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the immune system responds by expressing antibodies at levels that can be detected and monitored to identify the fraction of the population potentially immunized against SARS-CoV-2 and support efforts to deploy a vaccine strategically. A SPR sensor coated with a peptide monolayer and functionalized with various sources of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant proteins expressed in different cell lines detected human anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the nanomolar range. Nucleocapsid expressed in different cell lines did not significantly change the sensitivity of the assays, whereas the use of a CHO cell line to express spike ectodomain led to excellent performance. This bioassay was performed on a portable SPR instrument capable of measuring 4 biological samples within 30 minutes of sample/sensor contact and the chip could be regenerated at least 9 times. Multi-site validation was then performed with in-house and commercial ELISA, which revealed excellent cross-correlations with Pearson’s coefficients exceeding 0.85 in all cases, for measurements in DBS and plasma. This strategy paves the way to point-of-care and rapid testing for antibodies in the context of viral infection and vaccine efficacy monitoring.

18.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9943, 2020 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740575

ABSTRACT

Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been unprecedented in recent history. The rapid global spread has demonstrated how the emergence of a novel pathogen necessitates new information to advise both healthcare systems and policy-makers. The directives for the management of COVID-19 have been limited to infection control measures and treatment of patients, which has left physicians and researchers alone to navigate the massive amount of research being published while searching for evidence-based strategies to care for patients. To tackle this barrier, we launched CovidReview.ca, an open-access, continually updated, online platform that screens available COVID-19 research to determine higher quality publications. This paper uses data from this review process to explore the activity and trends of COVID-19 research worldwide over time, while specifically looking at the types of studies being published. Materials and Methods The literature search was conducted on PubMed. Search terms included "COVID-19", "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2", "coronavirus 19", "SARS-COV-2", and "2019-nCoV". All articles captured by this strategy were reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers and categorized by type of research, relevant medical specialties, and type of publication. Criteria were developed to allow for inclusion or exclusion to the website. Due to the volume of research, only a level 1 (title and abstract) screen was performed. Results The time period for the analysis was January 17, 2020, to May 10, 2020. The total number of papers captured by the search criteria was 10,685, of which 2,742 were included on the website and 7,943 were excluded. The greatest increase in the types of studies over the 16 weeks was narrative review/expert opinion papers followed by case series/reports. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials remained the least published types of studies. Conclusions The surge of research that accompanied the COVID-19 pandemic is unparalleled in recent years. From our analysis, it is clear that case reports and narrative reviews were the most widely published, particularly in the earlier days of this pandemic. Continued research that falls higher on the evidence pyramid and is more applicable to clinical settings is warranted.

19.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 70-75, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733649

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OSCC) patients treated with non-surgical approach i.e. definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: All OSCC patients treated radically with IMRT (without primary surgery) between 2005-2014 were reviewed in a prospectively collected database. OSCC patients treated with definitive RT received concurrent chemotherapy except for early stage patients or those who declined or were unfit for chemotherapy. The 5-year local, and regional, distant control rates, disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and late toxicity were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 1316 OSCC patients treated with curative-intent; 108 patients (8%) received non-operative management due to: medical inoperability (n = 14, 13%), surgical unresectability (n = 8, 7%), patient declined surgery (n = 15, 14%), attempted preservation of oral structure/function in view of required extensive surgery (n = 53, 49%) or extensive oropharyngeal involvement (n = 18, 17%). Sixty-eight (63%) were cT3-4, 38 (35%) were cN2-3, and 38 (35%) received concurrent chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year local, regional, distant control rate, disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were 78%, 92%, 90%, 42%, 50%, and 76% respectively. Patients with cN2-3 had higher rate of 5-year distant metastasis (24% vs 3%, p = 0.001), with detrimental impact on DFS (p = 0.03) and OS (p < 0.02) on multivariable analysis. Grade ≥ 3 late toxicity was reported in 9% of patients (most common: grade 3 osteoradionecrosis in 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-operative management of OSCC resulted in a meaningful rate of locoregional control, and could be an alternative curative approach when primary surgery would be declined, unsuitable or unacceptably delayed.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
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