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1.
Life (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to have adverse impacts on psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in medical visits due to a wide range of psychiatric disorders in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits of all Korean children and adolescents (0-19 years old) due to the 12 following psychiatric disorders were investigated: autism; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; primary insomnia; schizophrenia; panic disorder; hypochondriasis; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); anxiety disorder; anorexia nervosa; and adephagia. The mean medical visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. The mean number of clinical visits due to autism, ADHD, depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.05). The higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders was maintained in age and sex subgroups. The female and adolescent groups demonstrated a higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits due to many psychiatric disorders were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Korea. Women and adolescents were more susceptible to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776273

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been suggested to increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders. This study expanded upon previous findings by estimating the changes in medical visits for various psychological disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before COVID-19. The entire Korean population ≥ 20 years old (~42.3 million) was included. The first COVID-19 case in Korea was reported on 20 January 2020. Thus, the period from January 2018 through to February 2020 was classified as "before COVID-19", and the period from March 2020 through to May 2021 was classified as "during COVID-19". Monthly medical visits due to the following 13 psychological disorders were evaluated: depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, schizophrenia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, alcoholism, nicotine dependency, and gambling addiction were evaluated. The differences in the number of medical visits and the variance of diseases before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Levene's test. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. The frequencies of medical visits for depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction were higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.001). However, the frequencies of medical visits for schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.001). The psychological disorders with a higher frequency of medical visits during COVID-19 were consistent in all age and sex subgroups. In the old age group, the number of medical visits due to schizophrenia was also higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Many psychological disorders, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction, had a higher number of related medical visits, while disorders such as schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency had a lower number of related medical visits during COVID-19 among Korean adults.

3.
J Pers Med ; 12(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760723

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study was to examine the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures (fxs) according to the level of physical activity (PA) among osteoporosis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) customized database. From NHIS data from 2009 to 2017, osteoporosis was selected as requested. PA was classified into 'high PA' (n = 58,620), 'moderate PA' (n = 58,620), and 'low PA' (n = 58,620) and were matched in a 1:1:1 ratio by gender, age, income within the household unit, and region of residence. A stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for each type of fx comparing PA groups. The 'low PA' group was the reference group. For vertebral fx, the adjusted HR (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) was 0.27 (0.26-0.28) for the 'high PA' group and 0.43 (0.42-0.44) for the 'moderate PA' group. For hip fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.37 (0.34-0.40) for the 'high PA' group and 0.51 (0.47-0.55) for the 'moderate PA' group. For distal radius fx, the adjusted HR (95% CIs) was 0.32 (0.30-0.33) for the 'high PA' group and 0.46 (0.45-0.48) for the 'moderate PA' group. The results of this study suggest that a higher intensity of PA is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fxs, including vertebral fx, hip fx, and distal radius fx.

4.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715466

ABSTRACT

This study examined the associations between the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures in detailed sites and combined physical activity (PA) and sunshine duration (SD). Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort for 7-year periods and from the Korea Meteorological Administration were used. Osteoporotic fractures (n = 12,103), including vertebral fractures, hip fractures, and distal radius fractures, and matched controls (n = 24,206) were selected in 1:2 ratios by age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (High PA) and low-intensity PA (Low PA). SD was classified as Short SD (<6.1 h) and Long SD (≥6.1 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95%-confidence intervals (CIs) of the combined PA and SD groups for the occurrence of each osteoporotic fracture. Compared to 'Low PA + Short SD', the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for vertebral fracture in 'High PA + Short SD' and 'High PA + Long SD' were 0.83 (0.76-0.91) and 0.84 (0.77-0.92), respectively. Hip/distal radius fractures were not associated with the combined PA and SD group. We suggest that a higher intensity of PA is inversely associated with the risk of vertebral fracture.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318717

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is predicted to significantly affect patients with lung cancer, owing to its rapid progression and high mortality. Studies on lung cancer diagnosis and treatment during an epidemic are lacking. We analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on lung cancer diagnosis in Korea, where lung cancer incidence continues to rise. Methods: The number of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases in three university-affiliated hospitals during the pandemic and their clinical features were compared with lung cancer cases diagnosed during the same period in the past three years. The effectiveness of measures taken by the study hospitals to prevent nosocomial transmission was reviewed. Results: Between February and June during 2017–2020. 612 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed. During the pandemic, the number of patients who sought consultation at the division of pulmonology of study hospitals dropped by 16% from the previous year. Responding to the pandemic, the involved hospitals created physically isolated triage areas for patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Wide-range screening and preventive measures were implemented, thus minimizing delay in lung cancer diagnosis. No patients acquired COVID-19 due to hospital exposure. The proportion of patients with stage III–IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) significantly increased (2020: 74.7% vs. 2017: 57.9%, 2018: 66.7%, 2019: 62.7%, p=0.011). The number of lung cancers diagnosed during this period and the previous year remained the same. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with advanced NSCLC increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
7.
Sustainability ; 13(19):10852, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1468474

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to provide concrete growth strategies and practical development methods in the beauty service industry. This study consists of a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis from the literature review and in-depth interviews with experts of the beauty service industry in South Korea. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied to the finalized SWOT matrix to incorporate experts’ ideas. The combined high priority factors present four types of strategic alternatives: Strength–Opportunity (SO), Strength–Threat (ST), Weakness–Opportunity (WO), and Weakness–Threat (WT). This study applies an environmental analysis framework from the management strategy field to construct a sophisticated SWOT matrix. Furthermore, this study quantifies the importance of SWOT components through AHP to determine priorities to lay the groundwork for timely and sustainable strategy development in the beauty service industry. Based on the SWOT-AHP analysis, this study suggests that beauty service companies should pay attention to the lack of profitability and employee stress with high turnover rates caused by poor working conditions and emotional labor. In addition, the Korean government should gradually shift away from the lack of an effective legal system to grow the beauty industry.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence of the associations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the risk and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the effects of asthma and COPD on the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Data from a nationwide COVID-19 cohort database by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation were utilized. A total of 4066 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were 1:4 matched with 16,264 controls with regard to age, sex, and income. Asthma and COPD were defined as diagnostic codes (ICD-10) and medication claim codes. Conditional and unconditional multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyze the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 associated with asthma and COPD. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and severe asthma/COPD did not differ between the COVID-19 and control patients in the multivariate analyses. Among the total 4066 COVID-19 patients, 343 (8.4%) had severe COVID-19, of whom 132 (3.2% of the total COVID-19 patients) died. Regarding the outcomes of COVID-19, neither mild nor severe asthma were associated with the severity or mortality of COVID-19 after adjusting for other variables. However, severe COPD was a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.08-4.60, p = 0.030) and the mortality of COVID-19 in the multivariate analyses (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.14-8.2, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, neither asthma nor COPD were associated with COVID-19, but severe COPD was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19.

9.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1157-1168, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. RESULTS: During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(4): 526-544, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296052

ABSTRACT

In the era of novel coronavirus epidemics, vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been recognized as the most effective public health interventions to control the pandemic. An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is defined as any untoward occurrence following immunization, and the majority of AEFIs are caused by protective immune responses stimulated by vaccines. Most of the reported AEFIs are not serious, and many are not immunologically mediated or even reproducible on re-exposure. However, uncommon severe allergic adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions, can occur after vaccinations. Confirmed allergic reactions to vaccines may be caused by residual non-human protein, preservatives, or stabilizers in the vaccine formulation (also known as excipients). There are 2 main potential allergenic/immunogenic excipients in COVID-19 vaccines, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80. PEG, also known as macrogol, is an ingredient in various laxatives and injectable formulations, such as depot steroids. Polysorbate 80 is present in various medical products, creams, ointments, lotions, and medication tablets. Contraindications to the administration of COVID-19 vaccines include a previous history of severe allergic reactions to the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine or proven hypersensitivity to a vaccine component, such as PEG or polysorbate 80. Anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions following immunization can cause fear and loss of confidence in the safety of vaccines among the public. A better understanding of these events is thought to help alleviate concerns about the current COVID-19 vaccines and provide reassurance to the general population by analyzing the exact incidence of anaphylaxis and potential risk factors. COVID-19 vaccine-associated anaphylaxis could be prevented and managed by risk stratification based on our local and global experience.

12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295881

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Morbidity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 185: 113177, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206999

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnosis and case isolation are pivotal to controlling the current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, a label-free DNA capacitive biosensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that demonstrates real-time, low-cost, and high-throughput screening of nucleic acid samples is presented. Our novel biosensor composed of the interdigitated platinum/titanium electrodes on the glass substrate can detect the hybridization of analyte DNA with probe DNA. The hybridization signals of specific DNA sequences were verified through exhaustive physicochemical analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, contact-angle analysis, and capacitance-frequency measurements. For a single-step hybridized reaction, the fabricated kit exhibited significant sensitivity (capacitance change, ΔC = ~2 nF) in detecting the conserved region of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene with high sensitivity of 0.843 nF/nM. In addition to capacitive measurements, this selective detection was confirmed by the fluorescence image and intensity from a SARS-CoV-2 gene labeled with a fluorescent dye. We also demonstrated that the kits are recyclable by surface ozone treatment using UV irradiation. Thus, these kits could potentially be applied to various types of label-free DNA, thereby acting as rapid, cost-effective biosensors for several diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977742

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported the association of obesity with increased morbidity or mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the relationship of obesity, as defined by the body mass index (BMI), with morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Data from 5628 confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Korea. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in the BMI groups were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of morbidity and diabetes in the BMI groups were analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates. Both underweight and obesity were associated with a higher HR for mortality (adjusted HR = 2.28, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.23-4.25, p = 0.009 for underweight and adjusted HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.10-2.66, p = 0.017 for obese). Obesity was related to higher odds of morbidity (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.32-2.21, p < 0.001). Underweight and obesity were associated with high mortality and/or morbidity due to COVID-19 in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Morbidity , Obesity/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Obesity/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Thinness/virology
16.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1040, 2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is predicted to significantly affect patients with lung cancer, owing to its rapid progression and high mortality. Studies on lung cancer diagnosis and treatment during an epidemic are lacking. We analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on lung cancer diagnosis in Korea, where lung cancer incidence continues to rise. METHODS: The number of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases in three university-affiliated hospitals during the pandemic and their clinical features were compared with lung cancer cases diagnosed during the same period in the past 3 years. The effectiveness of measures taken by the study hospitals to prevent nosocomial transmission was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 612 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer from February through June, 2017-2020. During the pandemic, the number of patients who sought consultation at the division of pulmonology of study hospitals dropped by 16% from the previous year. Responding to the pandemic, the involved hospitals created physically isolated triage areas for patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Wide-range screening and preventive measures were implemented, thus minimizing the delay in lung cancer diagnosis. No patient acquired COVID-19 due to hospital exposure. The proportion of patients with stage III-IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) significantly increased (2020: 74.7% vs. 2017: 57.9%, 2018: 66.7%, 2019: 62.7%, p = 0.011). The number of lung cancers diagnosed during this period and the previous year remained the same. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients with advanced NSCLC increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/epidemiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Triage
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