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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(2): 284-294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted health care workers (HCW). Most research focused on the adverse mental health effects during the initial surge of cases; and yet little is known about approximately how workers are faring 1 year into the pandemic. The objective of this study is to examine stress, burnout, and risk perception in an academic medical system, 1 year after the start of the pandemic. METHODS: HCW across care specialties participated in online surveys in Spring 2020 and Spring 2021. The surveys included questions related to workplace stress and risk perception related to COVID-19. Correlates of stress and burnout were explored using multivariable linear regression models. Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL) questions were added to the second survey. RESULTS: While HCW reported significantly fewer concerns about the risk of COVID-19 transmission to themselves and their families during the 2021 survey (compared with 2020), the percentage of workers who reported feeling excess stress at work or considered resigning stayed the same. One year into the pandemic, 57% of study participants met criteria for moderate or high levels of traumatic stress and 75% met criteria for moderate or high levels of burnout. As compared with participants who cared for no COVID-19 deaths, participants who cared for COVID-19 patients who died had significantly higher traumatic stress (1 to 10: Coef. = 2.7, P = .007; >10: Coef. = 6.7, P < .001) and burnout scores (1 to 10: Coef. = 2.7, P = .004; >10: Coef. = 2.6, P = .036). CONCLUSION: While Although perceptions of risk declined over the course of the year, levels of stress still remained high despite high vaccination rates. Those who witnessed more COVID-19 deaths were more likely to report increased burnout and post-traumatic stress. As our nation continues to grapple with the COVID-19 pandemic and new variants emerge it is imperative to focus on recovery strategies for high burnout groups to ensure the wellbeing of our health care workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life
2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330559

ABSTRACT

How host immune dysregulation affects recovery from COVID-19 infection in patients with cancer remains unclear. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses in 103 patients with prior COVID-19 infection, over 20% of whom had delayed viral clearance. Patients with prolonged disease demonstrated loss of antibodies to nucleocapsid and spike proteins with a compensatory increase in IFN-γ production by COVID-specific T-cells. High-dimensional analysis of peripheral blood samples revealed increased CD8+ effector T-cell differentiation and a broad but poorly converged COVID-specific TCR repertoire in patients with prolonged disease, consistent with an ongoing CD8+ T-cell response to persistent viral antigen. Conversely, patients with a CD4+ dominant immunophenotype had a much lower incidence of prolonged disease and exhibited a highly clonal TCR repertoire. These results identify a unique role for B-cells and CD4+ T-cells in promoting durable SARS-CoV-2 clearance, thereby underscoring the importance of coordinated cellular and humoral immunity in promoting long-term disease control.

3.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:39-39, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594847

ABSTRACT

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed biventricular failure with ejection fraction (EF) 20% and an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was placed for COVID-19 associated myocarditis prior to a tertiary care facility transfer. B Introduction: b Two young adults with COVID-19 associated myocarditis and refractory cardiogenic shock, without respiratory failure were successfully treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD), or "ECPELLA", and glucocorticoids. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:34-34, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594846

ABSTRACT

Questions evaluated workplace stress, burnout, and risk perception related to COVID;vaccination status and Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL) were added in 2021. B Background: b The COVID-19 pandemic has killed more than 600,000 people in the United States. We aimed to compare levels of stress, burnout, and risk perception one year into the pandemic for APPs. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:36-36, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594845

ABSTRACT

B Background: b The COVID-19 pandemic has psychological impacts on healthcare workers (HCW), especially those in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that HCWs in the ICU treating COVID-19 patients would have high levels of risk perception, stress, and burnout one year into the pandemic. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:72-72, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1592577

ABSTRACT

Using both microarrays and RNA sequencing, Defensin alpha 1 (DEFA1) was identified as a sensitive biomarker of neutrophil activation. DEFA1 levels measured by ddPCR may provide a quick novel test to discriminate outcomes, severity and need for ICU admission in COVID19+ patients. B Methods: b Whole blood was collected in RNA stabilizing "Tempus" tubes from COVID19+ ICU patients, floor patients incidentally COVID19+, and a healthy COVID19 negative control group from 30 Oct 2020 - 14 Apr 2021. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:118-118, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1595244

ABSTRACT

ONE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP ON ED RESPONDER BURNOUT DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC We aimed to survey providers a year into the pandemic on stress and burnout in the setting of new vaccine availability. B Background: b The COVID-19 (COVID) pandemic has caused incalculable damages throughout the U.S., with over 34-million infections and 600,000 deaths as of July 2021. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 7: 23337214211063103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582468

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, some nursing homes (NHs) in Maryland suffered larger outbreaks than others. This study examined how facility characteristics influenced outbreak size. We conducted a retrospective analysis of secondary data from Maryland NHs to identify characteristics associated with large outbreaks, defined as when total resident cases exceeded 10% of licensed beds, from January 1, 2020, through July 1, 2020. Our dataset was unique in its inclusion of short-stay residents as a measure of resident type and family satisfaction as a measure of quality. Facility characteristics were collected prior to 2020. Like other studies, we found that large outbreaks were more likely to occur in counties with high cumulative incidence of COVID-19, and in NHs with more licensed beds or fewer daily certified nursing assistant (CNA) hours. We also found that NHs with a greater proportion of short-stay residents were more likely to have large outbreaks, even after adjustment for other facility characteristics. Lower family satisfaction was not significantly associated with large outbreaks after adjusting for CNA hours. Understanding the characteristics of NHs with large COVID-19 outbreaks can guide facility re-structuring to prevent the spread of respiratory infections in future pandemics.

9.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750509

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

10.
Gynecologic Oncology ; 162:S168-S168, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1366736

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the telemedicine readiness and attitudes of gynecologic oncology patients with attention to groups at risk for difficulty in accessing care, such as increased distance to care and rural populations. Gynecologic oncology patients at all stages of disease and treatment (primary, recurrence, surveillance) were asked to complete an anonymous survey during in-person outpatient appointments at an academic comprehensive cancer center. Surveys were entered into RedCAP;SPSS was used for statistical analysis. This survey was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, before the introduction of telemedicine in this practice. Of 180 patients approached, 170 completed the survey. Mean age was 59.6 years;73.4% identified as White, 23.7% as Black, and 2.9% as other race. The majority of patients had ovarian cancer (41.2%), followed by endometrial (27.1%), cervical (20.6%), vaginal/vulvar (7.1%), and other (1.2%.) The majority of patients traveled greater than 50 miles for appointments (63.8%);these patients were more likely to be from rural counties and incurred a significantly higher cost for travel per visit ($60.77 vs $37.98, p=0.026.) The majority of patients expressed interest in using telemedicine appointments (75.7%) or a smartphone app (87.5%) as a component of their cancer care. Patients with difficulty attending appointments (88.9 vs 70.2%, p=0.02), or those from rural areas (88.7% vs 69.6%, p=0.03), were especially interested in telemedicine;those with both characteristics reported 100% interest in telemedicine. The majority of patients in both urban and rural counties had the ability to access the internet and telemedicine services from home, via smart phone or computer. Patients from rural and urban counties used the internet at similarly high rates (at least daily use, 79% vs 75%.) Telemedicine is acceptable and attractive to the majority of patients even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may offer financial and logistical advantages for patients who live far from gynecologic oncology care. Overall, patients have high rates of internet use and express comfort with using technology for their healthcare. Disparities in cancer outcomes for rural patients, including survival and clinical trials enrollment, have been associated with increased distance to providers and difficulty accessing care. In our study, these patients were universally interested in telemedicine. Telemedicine should be incorporated into standard practice beyond the current COVID-19 pandemic to reduce healthcare disparities related to care access. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Gynecologic Oncology is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1280-1289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238011

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have high mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the immune parameters that dictate clinical outcomes remain unknown. In a cohort of 100 patients with cancer who were hospitalized for COVID-19, patients with hematologic cancer had higher mortality relative to patients with solid cancer. In two additional cohorts, flow cytometric and serologic analyses demonstrated that patients with solid cancer and patients without cancer had a similar immune phenotype during acute COVID-19, whereas patients with hematologic cancer had impairment of B cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses. Despite the impaired humoral immunity and high mortality in patients with hematologic cancer who also have COVID-19, those with a greater number of CD8 T cells had improved survival, including those treated with anti-CD20 therapy. Furthermore, 77% of patients with hematologic cancer had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Thus, CD8 T cells might influence recovery from COVID-19 when humoral immunity is deficient. These observations suggest that CD8 T cell responses to vaccination might provide protection in patients with hematologic cancer even in the setting of limited humoral responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
13.
Cell ; 184(7): 1858-1864.e10, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Disease Susceptibility , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Vero Cells
14.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
15.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690482

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663600

ABSTRACT

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

18.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646575

ABSTRACT

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified extensive induction and activation of multiple immune lineages, including T cell activation, oligoclonal plasmablast expansion, and Fc and trafficking receptor modulation on innate lymphocytes and granulocytes, that distinguished severe COVID-19 cases from healthy donors or SARS-CoV-2-recovered or moderate severity patients. We found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to be a prognostic biomarker of disease severity and organ failure. Our findings demonstrate broad innate and adaptive leukocyte perturbations that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19 , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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