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1.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2022 ; : 361-366, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973476

ABSTRACT

Location fingerprinting based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) has become a mainstream indoor localization technique due to its advantage of not requiring the installation of new infrastructure and the modification of existing devices, especially given the prevalence of Wi-Fi-enabled devices and the ubiquitous Wi-Fi access in modern buildings. The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML) technologies like Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) makes location fingerprinting more accurate and reliable, especially for large-scale multi-building and multi-floor indoor localization. The application of DNNs for indoor localization, however, depends on a large amount of preprocessed and deliberately-labeled data for their training. Considering the difficulty of the data collection in an indoor environment, especially under the current epidemic situation of COVID-19, we investigate three different methods of RSSI data augmentation based on Multi-Output Gaussian Process (MOGP), i.e., by a single floor, by neighboring floors, and by a single building;unlike Single-Output Gaussian Process (SOGP), MOGP can take into account the correlation among RSSI observations from multiple Access Points (APs) deployed closely to each other (e.g., APs on the same floor of a building) by collectively handling them. The feasibility of the MOGP-based RSSI data augmentation is demonstrated through experiments using a recently-published work based on Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) indoor localization model and the UJIIndoorLoc, i.e., the most popular publicly-available multi-building and multi-floor indoor localization database;the RNN model trained with the UJIIndoorLoc database, augmented by using the whole RSSI data of a building in fitting an MOGP model (i.e., by a single building), outperforms the other two augmentation methods and reduces the mean three-dimensional positioning error from 8.62 m to 8.42 m in comparison to the RNN model trained with the original UJIIndoorLoc database. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-333275

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariant BA.2 has spread in many countries, replacing the earlier Omicron subvariant BA.1 and other variants. Here, using a cell culture infection assay, we quantified the intrinsic sensitivity of BA.2 and BA.1 compared with other variants of concern, Alpha, Gamma, and Delta, to five approved-neutralizing antibodies and antiviral drugs. Our assay revealed the diverse sensitivities of these variants to antibodies, including the loss of response of both BA.1 and BA.2 to casirivimab and of BA.1 to imdevimab. In contrast, EIDD-1931 and nirmatrelvir showed a more conserved activities to these variants. The viral response profile combined with mathematical analysis estimated differences in antiviral effects among variants in the clinical concentrations. These analyses provide essential evidence that gives insight into variant emergence’s impact on choosing optimal drug treatment.

3.
Blood ; 138:1956, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582274

ABSTRACT

Title: Comparison of Clinical and Thrombotic Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2- Pneumonia versus Other Viral Pneumonia in an Urban Academic Medical Center Objective: To compare clinical and thrombotic outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia versus other viral pneumonias. Introduction: Viral pneumonia (PNA) causes oxidative stress to the pulmonary vasculature, triggering endothelial dysfunction and activation of the coagulation cascade. Elevations in coagulation markers, including d-dimer and fibrinogen, have been observed. Recent studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes endothelial cell injury, with activation of the coagulation cascade, and a high frequency of systemic thrombotic events. It remains unclear whether it is viral pneumonia itself, a specific viral strain (and/or viral load) that drives the clinical and thrombotic outcomes. Furthermore, limited data is available regarding clinical outcomes in a diverse patient population hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study is from a single urban medical center in Chicago, Illinois. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study evaluating the medical records of hospitalized adult patients admitted to University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System (UIHHSS) with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia or other viral (H1N1 or H3N2) pneumonia between 10/01/2017 and 09/01/2020. Methods: Patients were included if ≥18 years old, hospitalized, with a primary confirmed diagnosis of viral pneumonia (SARS-CoV-2, H1N1 or H3N2) based on ICD-10 code, viral diagnostic testing, diagnosis description, and appropriate clinical characteristics/imaging studies. Past medical history, inpatient medications, coagulation parameters, arterial/venous thrombotic outcomes, and other clinical outcomes (renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, co-infection) were ed from UIHHSS electronic health record database. Results: Medical records of 257 patient with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia were reviewed, 199 patients with SARS-CoV-2 PNA (95 male, average age 58 years, 52% Hispanic, 37% non-Hispanic Black) and 58 patients with other viral PNA (24 male, average age 63 years, 21% Hispanic, 55% non-Hispanic Black;34 with H3N2, 24 with H1N1). Coagulation parameters (maximum D-dimer, fibrinogen, INR) were similar in both groups;average D-dimer was >3x ULN. Anticoagulation therapy was similarly prescribed in both groups (SARS-CoV-2, 95% vs 84%, H1N1 or H3N2), with prophylactic dose anticoagulation prescribed most frequently (73% vs 62%) and with high average compliance rates (89% vs 83%). Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU;32% vs 29%) and the median length of stay (10 vs 4 days) was similar in both groups. Thrombotic events (n = 6, 3%) occurred only in SARS-CoV-2 PNA patients in the ICU: 3 pulmonary embolism (PE), 1 distal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 2 non-ST elevated myocardial infarctions (NSTEMI). There was a significantly higher incidence of use of renal replacement therapy (8.5% vs 0%, p=0.016) and mortality (15.6% vs 3.4%, p=0.048) in the SARS-CoV-2 PNA group compared to the H3N2/H1N1 PNA group. There were no differences in the rates of mechanical ventilation, the incidence of major bleeding or co-infection. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (aOR 1.07), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 PNA (aOR 11.37), and ICU admission (aOR 41.95) were significantly associated with risk of mortality during hospitalization. Race and ethnicity were not associated with mortality. Conclusion: The overall incidence of thrombotic events was low and occurred only in the SARS-CoV-2 PNA group. The low rate of venous thrombosis detected in this group, especially in the ICU setting, is likely related to the reduced use of diagnostic studies during the first COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and to the high rates of anticoagulation prophylaxis orders and compliance. SARS-CoV-2 PNA was associated with a higher rate of renal failure and mortality compared to patients with H3N2/H1N1 viral pneumonia. There was no difference in mortality rates between Hispanic and non-Hispanic and between Black and non-Black patients. This study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia leads to greater endothelial dysfunction than that observed in H3N2/H1N1 viral pneumonia and that race/ethnicity does not drive mortality outcomes. Disclosures: Benken: BMS: Research Funding;CareDx: Research Funding;Transplant Genomics: Research Funding;Daiichi Sankyo: Research Funding;Verici Dx: Research Funding.

4.
International Journal of Mental Health Promotion ; 23(3):303-317, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1342153

ABSTRACT

The extent of viral spread and strategies in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic have been different in each country. There are overall increased mental health concerns in many countries but it is unclear what the general public individuals who do not have heighten vulnerability to stressors for existing mental diseases or significant physical illnesses were experiencing during the pandemic. We evaluated the stressors and mental health of general public in South Korea that has a relatively low confirmed cases and deaths. Responses on the on-line survey questions were used to assess the mental and physical symptoms in association with individuals' reported stressors. Individuals with the symptoms of the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were reported in 58.9%, and major depression (MD) in 23.2%, mostly in minimal to mild degrees, cut-off scores of 5 and 10, respectively by the validated screening tools, GAD-7 and PHQ-9. Both GAD and MD symptoms were in 21.5% of the respondents. The total number of stress had significant association with the scores of GAD-7, PHQ-9, physical symptoms, sleep difficulties and resilience (p < 0.01). GAD scores were also associated with sleep difficulties (p < 0.01) and raising young children (p < 0.05). MD scores were associated with sleep difficulties, job-dissatisfaction, and educational level (p < 0.05). The limitations of the study include small sample size, usage of smartphone or email, potential under-reporting by stigma in the socio-cultural context and evolving nature of pandemic. We conclude that keeping careful watch for mental symptoms, stressors, sleep difficulties and other physical symptoms are important even for the individuals without previous mental illnesses during the pandemic era.

5.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1096302

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing restrictions are in place in most public settings, and the undergraduate laboratory is no exception. In order to accommodate social distancing requirements, many laboratory exercises are being redeployed in an online format, which deprives students of experiential learning opportunities in a real laboratory setting. To bridge this experiential learning gap for online laboratory exercises, an open-source remote titration unit was created. This remote titration unit is based on a simple Raspberry Pi architecture equipped with a webcam and a servo (a small motor allowing fine control of angular position), allowing students to control the titration unit over the Internet with visual feedback of approximately a 0.5 s delay. Understanding that titrations are taught across all levels of chemistry, from high school to the postsecondary level, they are considered fundamental laboratory methods in analytical chemistry. In fact, titrations are the first analytical chemistry technique introduced to students, and the method holds a significant place in the chemistry curriculum. In response to the recent emphasis on virtual lab platforms due to COVID-19, the chemistry laboratory will need to evolve accordingly. The remote-control titration unit described here is an exemplar, showing that elements of experiential learning can be retained for online laboratory activities, and allows for the possibility of distanced learning that includes a meaningful laboratory component. © 2020 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13089-13097, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, two influential articles that reported the association of (hydroxy)chloroquine or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality were retracted due to significant methodological issues. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the same clinical issues through an improved research method and to find out the differences from the retracted papers. We systematically reviewed pre-existing literature, and compared the results with those of the retracted papers to gain a novel insight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted common risk factors identified in two retracted papers, and conducted relevant publication search until June 26, 2020 in PubMed. Then, we analyzed the risk factors for COVID-19 mortality and compared them to those of the retracted papers. RESULTS: Our systematic review demonstrated that most demographic and clinical risk factors for COVID-19 mortality were similar to those of the retracted papers. However, while the retracted paper indicated that both (hydroxy)chloroquine monotherapy and combination therapy with macrolide were associated with higher risk of mortality, our study showed that only combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine and macrolide was associated with higher risk of mortality (odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval 1.63-3.34). In addition, our study demonstrated that use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was associated with reduced risk of mortality (0.77; 0.65-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: When analyzing the same clinical issues with the two retracted papers through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and relevant cohort studies, we found out that (hydroxy)chloroquine monotherapy was not associated with higher risk of mortality, and that the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs was associated with reduced risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Retraction of Publication as Topic , Age Factors , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Information Dissemination , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Protective Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
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