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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 427: 127903, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536649

ABSTRACT

Increases in plastic-related pollution and their weathering can be a serious threat to environmental sustainability and human health, especially during the present COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus) pandemic. Planetary risks of plastic waste disposed from diverse sources are exacerbated by the weathering-driven alterations in their physical-chemical attributes and presence of hazardous pollutants mediated through adsorption. Besides, plastic polymers act as vectors of toxic chemical contaminants and pathogenic microbes through sorption onto the 'plastisphere' (i.e., plastic-microbe/biofilm-environment interface). In this review, the effects of weathering-driven alterations on the plastisphere are addressed in relation to the fate/cycling of environmental contaminants along with the sorption/desorption dynamics of micro-/nano-scale plastic (MPs/NPs) polymers for emerging contaminants (e.g., endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and certain heavy metals). The weathering processes, pathways, and mechanisms governing the adsorption of specific environmental pollutants on MPs/NPs surface are thus evaluated in relation to the physicochemical alterations based on several kinetic and isotherm studies. Consequently, the detailed evaluation on the role of the complex associations between weathering and physicochemical properties of plastics should help us gain a better knowledge with respect to the transport, behavior, fate, and toxicological chemistry of plastics along with the proper tactics for their sustainable remediation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148548, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272718

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic made us re-realize the importance of environmental disinfection and sanitation in indoor areas, hospitals, and clinical rooms. UVC irradiation of high energy and short wavelengths, especially in the 200-290-nm range possesses the great potential for germicidal disinfection. These properties of UVC allow to damage or destruct the nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) in diverse microbes (e.g., bacteria, fungi, and viruses). UVC light can hence be used as a promising tool for prevention and control of their infection or transmission. The present review offers insights into the historical perspective, mode of action, and recent advancements in the application of UVC-based antiviral therapy against coronaviruses (including SARS CoV-2). Moreover, the application of UVC lights in the sanitization of healthcare units, public places, medical instruments, respirators, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is also discussed. This article, therefore, is expected to deliver a new path for the developments of UVC-based viricidal approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 383-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076350

ABSTRACT

Advancements in analytical diagnostic systems for point-of-care (POC) application have gained considerable attention because of their rapid operation at the site required to manage severe diseases, even in a personalized manner. The POC diagnostic devices offer easy operation, fast analytical outcome, and affordable cost, which promote their advanced research and versatile adoptability. Keeping advantages in view, considerable efforts are being made to design and develop smart sensing components such as miniaturized transduction, interdigitated electrodes-based sensing chips, selective detection at low level, portable packaging, and sustainable durability to promote POC diagnostics according to the needs of patient care. Such effective diagnostics systems are in demand, which creates the challenge to make them more efficient in every aspect to generate a desired bio-informatic needed for better health access and management. Keeping advantages and scope in view, this mini review focuses on practical scenarios associated with miniaturized analytical diagnostic devices at POC application for targeted disease diagnostics smartly and efficiently. Moreover, advancements in technologies, such as smartphone-based operation, paper-based sensing assays, and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) which made POC more sensitive, informative, and suitable for major infectious disease diagnosis, are the main focus here. Besides, POC diagnostics based on automated patient sample integration with a sensing platform is continuously improving therapeutics interventions against specific infectious disease. This review also discussed challenges associated with state-of-the-art technology along with future research opportunities to design and develop next generation POC diagnostic systems needed to manage infectious diseases in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
Point-of-Care Testing , Precision Medicine/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Smartphone
4.
Environ Int ; 146: 106183, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892858

ABSTRACT

Airborne pathogens are small microbes that can cause a multitude of diseases (e.g., the common cold, flu, asthma, anthrax, tuberculosis, botulism, and pneumonia). As pathogens are transmitted from infected hosts via a number of routes (e.g., aerosolization, sneezing, and coughing), there is a great demand to accurately monitor their presence and behavior. Despite such need, conventional detection methods (e.g., colony counting, immunoassays, and various molecular techniques) generally suffer from a number of demerits (e.g., complex, time-consuming, and labor-intensive nature). To help overcome such limitations, nanomaterial-based biosensors have evolved as alternative candidates to realize portable, rapid, facile, and direct on-site identification of target microbes. In this review, nano-biosensors developed for the detection of airborne pathogens are listed and discussed in reference to conventional options. The prospects for the development of advanced nano-biosensors with enhanced accuracy and portability are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanostructures , Bacteria
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