Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 133
Filter
1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:848370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818026

ABSTRACT

In the future, tuberculosis (TB) will place a heavy burden on the aging population in Korea. To prepare for this crisis, it is important to analyze the disease burden trend of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Measuring disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic burden on MDR-TB patients can help reduce the incidence of TB. Accordingly, in this study, we measured the DALYs and economic burden on DS-TB and MDR-TB patients in 2014-2017 using a combination of National Health Insurance claims data, Annual Report on the Notified TB data, and Statistics Korea's mortality data. The incidence-based DALY approach implemented involved the summation of years of life lost and years lived with disability. For measuring economic burden, direct and indirect costs incurred by patients were totaled. From 2014 to 2017, DALYs per 100,000 people with DS-TB were 56, 49, 46, and 40, respectively, and DALYs per 100,000 people with MDR-TB were 3, 2, 2, and 2, respectively. The economic burden for the DS-TB population from 2014 to 2017 was $143.89 million, $136.36 million, $122.85 million, and $116.62 million, respectively, while that for MDR-TB was $413.44 million, $380.25 million, $376.46 million and $408.14 million, respectively. The results showed a decreasing trend in DALYs and economic burden for DS-TB, whereas MDR-TB was still found to be burdensome without a specific trend. With respect to age, the economic burden for both DS-TB and MDR-TB was higher among men than among women till <= 79 years. Conversely, the economic burden for women aged >=80 years was higher as compared to their male counterparts. In conclusion, the incidence and spread of TB in all areas of society must be suppressed through intensive management of MDR-TB in the older population. We hope that the national TB management project will proceed efficiently when the infectious disease management system is biased to one side due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Clinical Neurosurgery ; 67(SUPPL 1):194-195, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are increasing reports of a pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that presents with varying clinical features, but includes features of Kawasaki disease or toxic shock syndrome. Symptoms include fever, rash, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Many patients present without any respiratory symptoms and testing for SARS-CoV-2 is often negative. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. RESULTS: A 7-year-old previously healthy male presented with 3 days of fevers up to 102.4F, headaches, abdominal pain, and intractable vomiting. Both parents had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 four weeks prior. Nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Echocardiogram was normal. CT venogram of his head was negative for any pathology. He developed severe neck pain and persistent headache during his hospitalization. Soon after receiving hydroxychloroquine, he developed a facial rash and altered mental status with episodes of aphasia, agitation, and pinpoint pupils. He then became unresponsive with left gaze deviation. A non-contrast head CT and CT angiography were negative. He was given levetiracetam and cefazolin and transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed no epileptiform activity. Over the following 7 hours, the EEG demonstrated left frontotemporal slowing, which progressed into a loss of fast activity over the right hemisphere with increased delta activity in the left hemisphere, then abruptly changed to generalized voltage attenuation.He rapidly lost brainstem reflexes, developing fixed and dilated pupils. Repeat CT scan revealed diffuse cerebral edema with loss of gray-white differentiation. Lab results then were consistent with severe inflammation. An intracranial pressure monitor revealed pressures greater than 76 mmHg. His exam soon became consistent with brain death. Pathologic evaluation showed diffuse cerebral edema with perivascular mononuclear infiltrates. CONCLUSION: The cause of this pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome is unclear and the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 affects the nervous system is unknown. Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms should be closely monitored as they can rapidly decline due to fulminant cerebral edema.

3.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 119:130-139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To meta-analyse the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and mortality of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination. METHODS: Eighteen studies of VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine administration were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. The meta-analysis estimated the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding the incidence, manifestations, sites of thrombosis, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence of total venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 28 (95% CI 12-52, I2=100%) per 100,000 doses administered. Of 664 patients included in the quantitative analysis (10 studies), the mean age of patients with VITT was 45.6 years (95% CI 43.8-47.4, I2=57%), with a female predominance (70%). Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), and splanchnic vein thrombosis occurred in 54%, 36%, and 19% of patients with VITT, respectively. The pooled incidence rate of CVT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (23 per 100,000 person-years) was higher than that reported in the pre-pandemic general population (0.9 per 100,000 person-years). Intracranial haemorrhage and extracranial thrombosis accompanied 47% and 33% of all patients with CVT, respectively. The antiplatelet factor 4 antibody positivity rate was 91% (95% CI 88-94, I2=0%) and the overall mortality was 32% (95% CI 24-41, I2=69%), and no significant difference was observed between heparin- and non-heparin-based anticoagulation treatments (risk ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.47-1.50, I2=0%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with VITT after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination most frequently presented with CVT following DVT/PE and splanchnic vein thrombosis, and about one-third of patients had a fatal outcome. This meta-analysis should provide a better understanding of VITT and assist clinicians in identifying VITT early to improve outcomes and optimise management.

4.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811312

ABSTRACT

Desaturation on exercise has been suggested as a predictive feature for deterioration in COVID-19. The objective of this paper was to determine the feasibility and validity for the 40-steps desaturation test.A prospective observational cohort study was undertaken in patients assessed in hospital prior to discharge. One-hundred and fifty-two participants were screened between November 2020 and February 2021, and 64 were recruited to perform a 40-steps desaturation test. Patients who were able to perform the test were younger and less frail. Four patients were readmitted to hospital and one patient deteriorated within 30 days but no patient died.The majority of patients showed little change in saturations during the test, even with pre-existing respiratory pathology. Change in saturations, respiratory rate, heart rate and breathlessness were not predictive of death or readmission to hospital within 30 days. Of 13 patients who had a desaturation of 3% or more during exercise, none was readmitted to hospital within 30 days.Not enough patients with COVID-19 could be recruited to the study to provide evidence for the safety of the test in this patient group.The 40-steps desaturation test requires further evaluation to assess clinical utility.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(4):e0267353, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the pandemic, transmission risk from asymptomatic infection was unclear, making it imperative to monitor infection in workplace settings. Further, data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence within university populations has been limited. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of University research employees on campus July-December 2020. We conducted questionnaires on COVID-19 risk factors, RT-PCR testing, and SARS-CoV-2 serology using an in-house spike RBD assay, laboratory-based Spike NTD assay, and standard nucleocapsid platform assay. We estimated prevalence and cumulative incidence of seroconversion with 95% confidence intervals using the inverse of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. RESULTS: 910 individuals were included in this analysis. At baseline, 6.2% (95% CI 4.29-8.19) were seropositive using the spike RBD assay;four (0.4%) were seropositive using the nucleocapsid assay, and 44 (4.8%) using the Spike NTD assay. Cumulative incidence was 3.61% (95% CI: 2.04-5.16). Six asymptomatic individuals had positive RT-PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections were low;however, differences in target antigens of serological tests provided different estimates. Future research on appropriate methods of serological testing in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations is needed. Frequent RT-PCR testing of asymptomatic individuals is required to detect acute infections, and repeated serosurveys are beneficial for monitoring subclinical infection.

7.
PLoS One ; 17(4):e0267212, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808571

ABSTRACT

Testing surfaces in school classrooms for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can provide public-health information that complements clinical testing. We monitored the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in five schools (96 classrooms) in Davis, California (USA) by collecting weekly surface-swab samples from classroom floors and/or portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) units (n = 2,341 swabs). Twenty-two surfaces tested positive, with qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 36.07-38.01. Intermittent repeated positives in a single room were observed for both floor and HEPA filter samples for up to 52 days, even following regular cleaning and HEPA filter replacement after a positive result. We compared the two environmental sampling strategies by testing one floor and two HEPA filter samples in 57 classrooms at Schools D and E. HEPA filter sampling yielded 3.02% and 0.41% positivity rates per filter sample collected for Schools D and E, respectively, while floor sampling yielded 0.48% and 0% positivity rates. Our results indicate that HEPA filter swabs are more sensitive than floor swabs at detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in interior spaces. During the study, all schools were offered weekly free COVID-19 clinical testing through Healthy Davis Together (HDT). HDT also offered on-site clinical testing in Schools D and E, and upticks in testing participation were observed following a confirmed positive environmental sample. However, no confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified among students associated with classrooms yielding positive environmental samples. The positive samples detected in this study appeared to contain relic viral RNA from individuals infected before the monitoring program started and/or RNA transported into classrooms via fomites. High-Ct positive results from environmental swabs detected in the absence of known active infections supports this conclusion. Additional research is needed to differentiate between fresh and relic SARS-CoV-2 RNA in environmental samples and to determine what types of results should trigger interventions.

8.
J Transcult Nurs ; : 10436596221085300, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chinese immigrants have faced tremendous health challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety and associated factors among Chinese immigrants in the United States. METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional study conducted online. Sociodemographic, immigration-related, and pandemic-related factors, racism, social support, depression, and anxiety were measured. RESULTS: A total of 507 Chinese immigrants completed the survey, with 36% of participants having depression and 29% having anxiety. Younger age (p = .048), residing in the South (p = .017), being affected by the pandemic (p < .001), racism (p < .001), and lower levels of social support (p < .001) were associated with depression. Lower education levels (p = .017), unemployment (p = .036), being U.S.-born (China-born: p = .012;Other nativity: p = .034), being affected by the pandemic (p = .006), racism (p < .001), and lower levels of social support (p = .006) were associated with anxiety. DISCUSSION: There is a pressing need for health care professionals and policymakers to develop effective strategies to decrease anti-Chinese racism and address Chinese immigrants' mental health needs during the pandemic and afterward.

9.
iScience ; : 104293, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804378

ABSTRACT

The nucleoside analogue N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) is the active metabolite of the prodrug Molnupiravir, which has been approved for the treatment of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 incorporates NHC into its RNA, resulting in defective virus genomes. Likewise, inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) reduce virus yield upon infection, by suppressing the cellular synthesis of pyrimidines. Here we show that NHC and DHODH inhibitors strongly synergize in the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. We propose that the lack of available pyrimidine nucleotides upon DHODH inhibition increases the incorporation of NHC into nascent viral RNA. This concept is supported by the rescue of virus replication upon addition of pyrimidine nucleosides to the media. DHODH inhibitors increased the antiviral efficiency of Molnupiravir not only in organoids of human lung, but also in Syrian Gold hamsters and in K18-hACE2 mice. Combining Molnupiravir with DHODH inhibitors may thus improve available therapy options for COVID-19.

10.
9th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications, RiTA 2021 ; 429 LNNS:201-209, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1802617

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to provide an indoor service platform for employees with special needs. Disabled people have more energy/cost to adjust to the new work environment generated by COVID-19 than people without disabilities. Low job proficiency increases the number of customers waiting in the shop, which can reduce the café’s recycling rate and raise the danger of group infection. To resolve these issues, innovative technology must be used to prevent COVID-19 and improve employee health security for persons with disabilities. As a response to these issues, this paper proposes how to design an interactive delivery robot. The robot interacts with the human user via verbal expressions, such as explaining the destination using a speaker and a touch sensor and providing delivery services using a Lidar sensor and two actuators. The robot’s ability to go from the cafe to the target location, deliver the drink, and then return to the cafe to repeat the operation was proven as a consequence of the real design and implementation. We used ROS to bring those functions together on a single platform. This research is anticipated to revive the COVID-19 period, which has seen mutual communication go away, as well as contribute to economic restoration. Furthermore, I believe that given its aesthetic and practical benefits, it will be feasible to alleviate the job uncertainty that occurs in stores that employ individuals with impairments. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
Advanced Materials ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1800401

ABSTRACT

Bright-field imaging of nanoscale bioparticles is a challenging task for optical microscopy because the light-matter interactions of bioparticles are weak on conventional surfaces due to their low refractive index and small size. Alternatively, advanced imaging techniques, including near-field microscopy and phase microscopy, have enabled visualization and quantification of the bioparticles, but they require assistance of sophisticated/customized systems and post-processing with complex established algorithms. Here, a simple and fast immunoassay device, Gires-Tournois immunoassay platform (GTIP) is presented, which provides unique color dynamics in response to optical environment changes and thus enables the label-free bright-field imaging and facile quantification of bioparticles using conventional optical microscopy. Bioparticles on GTIP slow down the velocity of reflected light, leading to vivid color change according to the local particle density and maximizing chromatic contrast for high spatial distinguishability. The particle distribution and density on the surface of the resonator are readily analyzed through 2D raster-scanning-based chromaticity analysis. GTIP offers multiscale sensing capability for target analytes that possess different refractive indices and sizes.

13.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport ; 93:A45-A46, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798210
14.
J Microbiol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1797492

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance antigen-specific immune responses or to protect antigens from rapid elimination. As pattern recognition receptors, Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) and 8 (TLR8) activate the innate immune system by sensing endosomal single-stranded RNA of RNA viruses. Here, we investigated if a 2,4-diaminoquinazoline-based TLR7/8 agonist, (S)-3-((2-amino-8-fluoroquinazolin-4-yl)amino)hexan-1-ol (named compound 31), could be used as an adjuvant to enhance the serological and mucosal immunity of an inactivated influenza A virus vaccine. The compound induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. In a dose-response analysis, intranasal administration of 1 µg compound 31 together with an inactivated vaccine (0.5 µg) to mice not only enhanced virus-specific IgG and IgA production but also neutralized influenza A virus with statistical significance. Notably, in a virus-challenge model, the combination of the vaccine and compound 31 alleviated viral infection-mediated loss of body weight and increased survival rates by 40% compared with vaccine only-treated mice. We suggest that compound 31 is a promising lead compound for developing mucosal vaccine adjuvants to protect against respiratory RNA viruses such as influenza viruses and potentially coronaviruses.

15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(15):e116, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1793044

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells, causing the liver to be inflamed. AIH is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Few cases of AIH have been described after vaccination with two messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines-BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)-against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of AIH occurring after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. A 27-year-old female presented with jaundice and hepatomegaly, appearing 14 days after receiving the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Her laboratory results showed abnormal liver function with high total immunoglobulin G level. She was diagnosed with AIH with histologic finding and successfully treated with oral prednisolone. We report an AIH case after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea.

16.
13th International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction, IHCI 2021 ; 13184 LNCS:272-281, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1782736

ABSTRACT

Since the breakout of Covid-19, the number of online classes skyrocketed as conducting in-person classes in school has been discouraged. This led to the sudden shift into the adaption of online classes, blurring the line between traditional in-person classes and modern technology. In the Republic of Korea, the nation where it is known for its speed of Internet and high rate of digital natives amongst its citizen, there have been numerous attempts to incorporate virtual reality (VR) into the existing curriculum but has not been getting satisfactory results back. Through interviews and research, this paper tries to assess the current position of VR in the marketplace and suggest possible solutions that can support the expansion of the system into the school. The main purpose of this essay is to analyze whether Google Arts and Culture, one of the most accessible VR assimilated educational platforms, can be blended into the Korean education programs. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
13th International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction, IHCI 2021 ; 13184 LNCS:163-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1782734

ABSTRACT

The popularization of medical devices in households and video calls during the COVID-19 pandemic have set grounds for the necessary conditions for telehealth to thrive. This allowed for patients with chronic diseases to be treated without the need for physical contact with a clinician and to access professional medics regardless of time. However, due to concerns for the safety of sensitive data of patients and both the quality and accuracy of medical treatment provided, telehealth was and is set to become strictly regulated. Finding the necessary technologies to facilitate mobile medical treatment as a viable option for those who struggle with attaining physical presence in hospitals is, therefore, necessary to maintain telehealth. This research aims to conduct user research on how to improve telehealth services to better serve the elderly population. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779464

ABSTRACT

Background Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), also called 3D mammography, was first approved by the Federal Drug Administration in 2011. The goal of 3D mammography is to improve accuracy compared to 2D digital mammography (DM), by increasing sensitivity and decreasing recall rates. To capture the broad utilization of DBT in populations receiving both screening and diagnostic imaging, this analysis investigates DBT usage over time in a longitudinal sample from 2016 through 2020 for adult women ranging from 18-74 years of age. Methods Retrospective analyses were conducted using de-identified administrative claims data from a large national U.S. health insurer. The study cohort consisted of women who were continuously enrolled in a commercial or Medicare Advantage plan from 1/2016 to 12/2020 and aged 18 to 74 years old as of 2016. All procedures were identified based on Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes. For each study year, receipt of breast cancer screening with DM (S-DM) or including DBT (S-DBT) were captured. Receipt of DM and DBT not specified for screening based on CPT code descriptions were categorized as diagnostic, D-DM and D-DBT respectively. Women that received both DBT and DM in the same year were included in the DBT group. In addition, women who received MRI and ultrasound were also captured. Rates of each procedure by study year, insurance type, and age categories that align with recommended screening guidelines (<40 years old, 40-49 years old and 50-74 years old) were examined. Results Approximately 3.8 million women met study criteria;85% were commercially insured and 15% were Medicare Advantage. Table 1 shows rates of adult women who received mammography, MRI and ultrasound over the study period. About 74% of study subjects receiving screening were 50-74 years old at the start of the study period, 25% were 40-49 years and 1% were under 40 years old. In 2020, there were fewer women (3%-13%) receiving imaging procedures compared to counts in 2019. During the 5-year study period, there was a 3.5-fold increase in the number of women who received S-DBT. In 2016, 23% of women who received a screening mammogram received S-DBT and by 2020, this percent increased to 82%. The percent of women who received a diagnostic mammogram using D-DBT compared to D-DM also increased overtime;29% of women received a D-DBT in 2016 and this increased to 77% in 2020. The number of women with receipt of ultrasound and MRI were similar in each study year. The percent diagnostic/screening tests (including DBT and DM) were in the range of 18.5%-20.2% each year. Conclusion Among this cohort of women who were continuously enrolled in the health plan throughout the 5-year study period, this analysis shows that screening and diagnostic DBT utilization rates increased from 2016 to 2020 while DM screening and diagnostic imaging utilization concomitantly decreased. The percentages of women that received S-DBT and D-DBT were highest in 2020, even though 8%-13% fewer women had evidence of mammography than in 2019, which is largely due to COVID-19 related healthcare service disruptions. The rate of diagnostic tests as a percent of screening tests did not decrease with the adoption of DBT. Further analyses investigating rates of follow-up procedures and downstream costs are warranted.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e646-e648, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769207
20.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758751

ABSTRACT

We compared the ability of SARS-CoV2 Spike-specific antibodies to induce natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients with natural infection and vaccinated persons. Analyzing plasma samples from 39 COVID-19 patients and 11 vaccinated individuals, significant induction of ADCC could be observed over a period of more than three months in both vaccinated and recovered individuals. Although plasma antibody concentrations were lower in recovered patients, we found antibodies elicited by natural infection induced a significantly stronger ADCC response compared to those induced by vaccination, which may affect protection conferred by vaccination.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL