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1.
Sensors ; 22(18):6922, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2033088

ABSTRACT

In the wake of COVID-19, the digital fitness market combining health equipment and ICT technologies is experiencing unexpected high growth. A smart trampoline fitness system is a new representative home exercise equipment for muscle strengthening and rehabilitation exercises. Recognizing the motions of the user and evaluating user activity is critical for implementing its self-guided exercising system. This study aimed to estimate the three-dimensional positions of the user's foot using deep learning-based image processing algorithms for footprint shadow images acquired from the system. The proposed system comprises a jumping fitness trampoline;an upward-looking camera with a wide-angle and fish-eye lens;and an embedded board to process deep learning algorithms. Compared with our previous approach, which suffered from a geometric calibration process, a camera calibration method for highly distorted images, and algorithmic sensitivity to environmental changes such as illumination conditions, the proposed deep learning algorithm utilizes end-to-end learning without calibration. The network is configured with a modified Fast-RCNN based on ResNet-50, where the region proposal network is modified to process location regression different from box regression. To verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm, a series of experiments are performed using a prototype system with a robotic manipulator to handle a foot mockup. The three root mean square errors corresponding to X, Y, and Z directions were revealed to be 8.32, 15.14, and 4.05 mm, respectively. Thus, the system can be utilized for motion recognition and performance evaluation of jumping exercises.

2.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911194

ABSTRACT

Collectivism assessed at the national level has been suggested as a psychological factor that affects compliance with COVID-19 guidelines in daily life. The level of assessment and conceptual construct of collectivism, however, vary across studies, which calls for the need to clarify the power of collectivism in explaining individuals' compliance behaviour. With this aim, we investigated individual-level collectivism, the unique variance and other relevant factors, such as altruism (e.g., for the family, community, and humanity) and impression management (e.g., what others would think of me) in explaining compliance with COVID-19 guidelines in US and South Korean participants. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that collectivism was a significant factor that explained compliance only in the US participants, whereas impression management was significant and explained the additional variance over collectivism in compliance in both the US and South Korean participants. The findings suggest the importance of elucidating the overlap between collectivism and impression management in studies exploring COVID-19 guideline adherence in daily life.

3.
Transplantation ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are vulnerable to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and exhibit poor antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines. Herein, we compared the humoral immunogenicity of a mixed vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [ChAd]/BNT162b2 [BNT]) with that of conventional matched vaccines (mRNA, adenoviral vector [AdV-Vec]) in SOTRs. METHODS: Serum samples were collected at Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) between September and October 2021 (14 d-5 mo after COVID-19 vaccination; V2). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antispike IgG titer (BAU/mL; ELISA) and neutralization inhibition (percentage; neutralization assay) were compared between vaccination groups overall and stratified by V2 (poststudy vaccination visit) timing. RESULTS: Of the 464 participants, 143 (31%) received mRNA vaccines, 170 (37%) received AdV-Vec vaccines, and 151 (33%) received mixed vaccines (all ChAd/BNT). The geometric mean titer for the ChAd/BNT group was 3.2-fold higher than that of the AdV-Vec group (geometric mean ratio, 3.2; confidence interval, 1.9-5.4) but lower than that of the mRNA group (geometric mean ratio, 0.4; confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Neutralization inhibition in the ChAd/BNT group was 32%, which was higher than that in the AdV-Vec group (21%; P < 0.001) but lower than that in the mRNA group (55%; P = 0.02). There was no difference in geometric mean titer by V2 timing (ChAd/BNT, 45 versus 31, days 14-60; mRNA, 28 versus 15, days 61-150). CONCLUSIONS: The ChAd/BNT group showed higher humoral immunogenicity than the AdV-Vec group, with similar immunogenicity to the mRNA vaccine. Nevertheless, immunogenicity following the primary vaccination series was poor in all vaccine groups, supporting the justification for booster vaccination in SOTRs.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147363, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669330

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infections are proposed to be triggering factors for Kawasaki disease (KD), although its etiological factors remain unknown. Recent reports have indicated a 4- to 6-week lag between SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with a similar presentation to that of KD. Objective: To investigate the temporal correlation between KD and viral infections, focusing on respiratory viruses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 0 to 19 years diagnosed with KD between January 2010 and September 2020 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Data on infectious disease outbreaks from 2016 to 2019 were collected from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System, Korea Enteroviruses Surveillance System, and the Enteric Pathogens Active Surveillance Network in South Korea. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: National databases for infectious diseases were used for a time-series analysis of the correlation between viral infections and KD. The temporal correlation between infectious disease outbreaks and KD outbreaks was evaluated using the Granger causality test (G-test), which is a useful tool to estimate correlations between 2 time series of diseases based on time lags. Results: Overall, 53 424 individuals with KD were identified, including 22 510 (42.1%) females and 30 914 (57.9%) males and 44 276 individuals (82.9%) younger than 5 years. Intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant KD was identified in 9042 individuals (16.9%), and coronary artery abnormalities were identified in 384 individuals (0.7%). Of 14 infectious diseases included in the analyses, rhinovirus infection outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks in South Korea (r = 0.3; 1 month: P < .001; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infection were identified as significantly correlated with KD outbreaks by 2 months (r = 0.5; 2 months: P < .001). Additionally, varicella outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 2 and 3 months before KD outbreaks (r = 0.7; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study with a time series analysis of children and youth in South Korea with KD, respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and varicella outbreaks were significantly correlated with KD at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623275

ABSTRACT

During the first outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many people expressed hatred toward others whom they believed were responsible for the situation. Such increase in negative affect could be resultant of the better-than-average effect (BTAE), which refers to the phenomenon of believing that one is superior to average others. This study investigated the relationship between the BTAE and emotional valence toward others and tested whether the relationship was moderated by allocentric goals (i.e., concerned with the interests of others rather than themselves) and culture. Participants from the U.S. (N = 210) and South Korea (N = 214) were asked about their perceptions on whether they were better than others at preventing the COVID-19 infection, how they felt about others regarding COVID-19, and for whom they were preventing COVID-19. The results indicated that people showing more BTAE in relation to preventing the COVID-19 infection reported more negative emotional valence toward others, but the relationship was moderated by allocentric goals. In particular, the U.S. participants with higher allocentric goals reported less negatively valenced emotions, while the same was not found in Korean participants. The findings suggest the power of allocentric goals in diminishing the BTAE in some cultures, which may possibly explain the negative emotions some people experience when following social distancing rules.

6.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1268, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on newer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies (remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma) in solid organ transplant recipients; concerns had been raised regarding possible adverse impact on allograft function or secondary infections. METHODS: We studied 77 solid organ transplant inpatients with COVID-19 during 2 therapeutic eras (Era 1: March-May 2020, 21 patients; and Era 2: June-November 2020, 56 patients) and 52 solid organ transplant outpatients. RESULTS: In Era 1, no patients received remdesivir or dexamethasone, and 4 of 21 (19.4%) received convalescent plasma, whereas in Era 2, remdesivir (24/56, 42.9%), dexamethasone (24/56, 42.9%), and convalescent plasma (40/56, 71.4%) were commonly used. Mortality was low across both eras, 4 of 77 (5.6%), and rejection occurred in only 2 of 77 (2.8%) inpatients; infections were similar in hypoxemic patients with or without dexamethasone. Preexisting graft dysfunction was associated with greater need for hospitalization, higher severity score, and lower survival. Acute kidney injury was present in 37.3% of inpatients; renal function improved more rapidly in patients who received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Post-COVID-19 renal and liver function were comparable between eras, out to 90 d. CONCLUSIONS: Newer COVID-19 therapies did not appear to have a deleterious effect on allograft function, and infectious complications were comparable.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 29-35, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduce winter-prevalent respiratory viral infections represented by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) during the winter in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System database was used. From January 2016 through January 2021, the weekly positivity of respiratory viruses and the weekly number of hospitalizations with acute respiratory infections were collected. The NPI period was defined as February 2020-January 2021. We analyzed whether hospitalization and sample positivity by respiratory viruses changed after NPIs. Bayesian structural time-series models and Poisson analyses were used. Data from other countries/regions reporting positive rates of RSV and IFV were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-NPI period, the positive rates of RSV and IFV decreased significantly to 19% and 6%, and 23% and 6% of the predicted value. Also, hospitalization significantly decreased to 9% and 8%, and 10% and 5% of the predicted value. The positive rates of IFV in 14 countries during the NPI period were almost 0, whereas sporadic outbreaks of RSV occurred in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: No RSV and IFV winter epidemics were observed during the 2020-2021 season in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bayes Theorem , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273439

ABSTRACT

The mental health of nurses participating in patient care is under threat amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify the mental health status (depression, anxiety, and stress) and its influencing factors on nurses who provided patient care at a specialized hospital for COVID-19 in South Korea. Of the 180 nurses who participated in this study, 30.6% had moderate or higher levels of depression, 41% had moderate or higher anxiety levels, and 19.4% had moderate or higher stress levels. In this study, stigma influenced nurses' mental health, such that the higher the stigma, the higher the nurses' depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression was higher in female nurses than in male nurses, and stress was higher in charge nurses than nurses in other job positions. Therefore, a management program should be designed to improve the mental health of nurses during the current pandemic. In particular, a solution to reduce stigma is required, and the mental health of female nurses and nurses in leadership roles requires special attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Curr Transplant Rep ; 7(4): 366-378, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insufficient knowledge about COVID-19 and the potential risks of COVID-19 are limiting organ transplantation in wait-listed candidates and deferring essential health care in solid organ transplant recipients. In this review, we expand the understanding and present an overview of the optimized management of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Transplant recipients are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19. The unique characteristics of transplant recipients can make it more difficult to identify COVID-19. Based on the COVID-19 data to date and our experience, we present testing, management, and prevention methods for COVID-19. Comprehensive diagnostic tests should be performed to determine disease severity, phase of illness, and identify other comorbidities in transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19. Outpatients should receive education for preventative measures and optimal health care delivery minimizing potential infectious exposures. Multidisciplinary interventions should be provided to hospitalized transplant recipients for COVID-19 because of the complexity of caring for transplant recipients. SUMMARY: Transplant recipients should strictly adhere to infection prevention measures. Understanding of the transplant specific pathophysiology and development of effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 should be prioritized.

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