Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
Add filters

Language
Year range
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316601

ABSTRACT

Background: Increased inflammation is a hallmark of COVID-19, with pulmonary and systemic inflammation identified in multiple cohorts of patients. Definitive cellular and molecular pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes in blood circulation, can contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Neutrophilia, elevated neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios, and elevated neutrophil-associated cytokines are present in COVID-19, but changes in neutrophil functions have not been characterized. Here we analyzed the functional state of circulating neutrophils in COVID-19.Methods: Blood was obtained from critically ill COVID-19 patients over two weeks and healthy controls across multiple timepoints. Plasma cytokine profiles were assessed by bead array. Neutrophils were isolated and tested ex vivo for oxidative burst, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) and phagocytosis. Lung tissue was obtained immediately post-mortem from COVID-19 patients for immunostaining.Results: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 were identified in COVID-19 plasma both at the first measurement and across their hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Elevations in cytokines IP-10, GM-CSF, IL-1b, IL-10 and TNF were also present at the first measurement and across hospital stays. Functionally, circulating neutrophils from COVID-19 patients had exaggerated oxidative burst (p < 0.0001), NETosis (p < 0.0001) and phagocytosis (p < 0.0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis was found to be correlated with both leukocytosis and neutrophilia in COVID-19 patients. Neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma. While elevations in IL-8 and ANC correlated to COVID-19 disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death.Conclusions: Circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with increased oxidative burst, NETosis and phagocytosis. Readily accessible and dynamic, plasma IL-8 and circulating neutrophil function can be explored as potential COVID-19 disease biomarkers.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs (salary support and VA Merit Award, PI Crotty Alexander) and NIH NHLBI (PI Crotty Alexander).Declaration of Interests: The authors report no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The research protocol was approved by the UCSD, VASDHS and Rady Children’s Hospital institutional review boards (IRBs) and all participants or designated family member gave written informed consent.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(3): NP75-NP82, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected financial and psychosocial factors that influence plastic surgery demand. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to actively assess public interest changes and the reasons underlying these shifts. METHODS: Using Amazons' Mechanical Turk, we crowdsourced public opinions regarding aesthetic interventions from April 30 to May 3, 2020. The survey assessed prior experience with and interest in 6 aesthetic interventions before and during the pandemic and reasons for changing interest. United States residents aged 18 years and over who passed the attention check were included. RESULTS: We included 704 of 838 total responses. One-half of respondents were female; the median age group was 25 to 34 years. During the pandemic, 21% of respondents had increased and 33% decreased interest in at least one intervention. Non-invasive procedures (7.3%), facial aesthetic surgery (6.6%), and medical-grade skincare (5.9%) elicited the greatest interest increase. Seeing themselves in the mirror more often (43.2%), desire to look better after the crisis (41.8%), and increased time on social media (40.4%) were the top reasons for increased interest. The most common reasons for decreased interest were changing spending priorities (58%), focusing on other health aspects (49.8%), and worrying about infection in medical facilities (46.3%). Almost one-half of respondents considered virtual consultations for interventions of increased interest. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected interest in medical aesthetics. Offering telemedicine and discussing detailed COVID-19 infection control policies with patients will be critical to address patient needs and concerns. These findings can be used to improve patient outreach, advertisement, and counseling as practices focus on reopening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgery, Plastic , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Esthetics , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
6.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(3): NP65-NP74, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 was declared to be a worldwide pandemic and US national emergency in March (week 11), it has significantly changed aesthetic plastic surgery. As plastic surgeons now move towards reopening practices, understanding public interest in medical aesthetics will be critical to maximize efforts and resource allocation in procedures and treatments that patients want. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the authors sought to passively query public interest in aesthetics utilizing Google Trends search data. METHODS: Google Trends was utilized to quantify relative search volumes over the past 4 years for a variety of categories: patient-related, surgery-related, injectables, breast procedures, face procedures, and body procedures. Data were deseasonalized and represented graphically. Z-scores of each time-point differing from the expected values were determined utilizing least squares regression. RESULTS: Of the 204 significantly anomalous search term data points in 2020, 172 (84.0%) occurred after week 11 (pandemic/national emergency declaration). Sixty percent of searches in all time-points after week 11 significantly differed, and 25/26 (96.0%) search terms experienced significant changes after week 11. There was decreased interest for 18 terms with variable recovery. Procedural nadirs for decreased search volume troughs occurred between weeks 11 and 14. Six patient-related chief complaints saw increased search interest after COVID-19, with peak interest between weeks 11 and 17. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to assess real-time, national data about the impact of COVID-19 on public interest in aesthetics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Esthetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL