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1.
2021 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, IAS 2021 ; 2021-October, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1705799

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms on the surface are important contributors to produce a serious threat to global public health. These microorganisms are associated with hospital acquired infections (HAIs), resulting in high mortality rates worldwide. The U.S Center for Diseases Control and Prevention reported that about one in 25 U.S hospital patients is being diagnosed related to HAIs. 60-70% of these HAIs are related to bacterial surface contamination of hospital or medical devices. In addition, after COVID-19 outbreaks, antimicrobial surfaces become more important as the possibility of infectious virus transmission by fomites confirmed. Previous studies reports that virus remain infectious on surfaces such as plastic for 6 days and human skin for 4 days. 1 That triggered a tremendous effort to sanitize everything surfaces from the handle to the subway. 2 The microbial inactivation method using heat treatment has been used as a safe, effective, and environment-friendly method that do not use and generate harmful ozone or ions. Herein, we introduce an electro-thermal antimicrobial technology that completely kill microorganism on surface. The electro-thermal antimicrobial performance results from thermal energy generated by current flowing on a conductive carbon fiber surface. This work presents a new approach for rapid inactivation of microorganisms on the surface, which is attractive for low-cost, harmless, and energy-efficient sterilization applications. © 2021 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing ; 38(9):957-974, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1704880

ABSTRACT

This study explicates the relationships between cruise participants and destination host communities to examine types of conflicts (i.e., conflicts between cruise tourists and residents, residents and local governments, and residents and their fellow residents) and resident perceptions. Survey data from local Bahamians were collected online. The results revealed that residents experiencing different degrees of conflict displayed significant differences in their responses toward cruise tourism. This research further discloses significant factors for predicting the types of conflicts that may arise within host communities. As this research provides insights into the significance of promoting mutual understanding between stakeholders on the impacts of cruise tourism, the findings provide both theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for researchers and cruise destination managers/policy makers on cruise tourism–related sustainable destination development. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

3.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; 64(5):375-385, 2021.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1362704

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, more than 150 million people in over 200 countries have been infected, with over 3 million people dying due to it, as of May 1, 2021. Many researchers are working continuously to find effective drug treatments for COVID-19;however, the optimal treatment approach remains unclear. In this article, current advances in pharmacological treatments for patients with COVID-19 are discussed. Data obtained from recent studies indicate a mortality benefit with the administration of dexamethasone or adjunctive tocilizumab and potential clinical benefits with remdesivir (with or without baricitinib). Several monoclonal antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been developed. The US Food and Drug Administration issued two emergency use authorizations: one for bamlanivimab/etesevimab and another for casirivimab/imdevimab for patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, at high risk of progression to severe disease and/or hospitalization. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 indicates that antiviral treatments would be most beneficial in the early phase of the infection that is primarily driven by replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, whereas immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory therapies are likely to be more beneficial during the late phase of the infection, when the disease is driven by an exaggerated immune/inflammatory response to the virus that causes tissue damage.

4.
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry ; 13(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1214770

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic sweeps across the world. Government policy to control the outbreak is to quarantine. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological impacts of quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Materials and method: Self-report questionnaire was conducted from March 17, 2020, to April 20, 2020 including the outburst period in Daegu, Republic of Korea. Two-thousand and eighty subjects were participated. The online link was sent to the subjects who were now quarantined (NQ) or past-quarantined (PQ). The self-report questionnaire included patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), primary care post-traumatic stress disorder screen for diagnostic and statistical manual-5 (PTSD-PC), state- trait anger expression inventory (STAX-I), and P4 suicidality screener scale(P4). Results: Among 2080 subjects 52.5% (95% CI, 50.3%-54.7%) for PHQ-9, 44.5% (95% CI, 42.4%-46.7%) for GAD-7, 39.4% (95% CI, 37.3%-41.6%) for PTSD-PC, 31.6% (95% CI, 29.6%-33.6%) for STAX-I, and 10.9% (95% CI, 9.6%-12.3%) for P4 exceeded cutoff value. NQ group (n = 608, 29%) show more anger than PQ (n = 1472, 71%) (aORs, 1.417 [95% CI, 1.119-1.796]). Especially subjects who were quarantined for more than 28 days in NQ (n = 238, 39%) had high risk for symptoms of PHQ-9 (aORs, 1.428 [95% CI, 1.081-1.886]), GAD-7 (aORs, 1.326 [95% CI, 1.008-1.744]), PTSD-PC (aORs, 1.427 [95% CI, 1.083-1.879]), and STAX-I (aORs, 1.354 [95% CI, 1.017-1.802] than PQ . Conclusion: Our result suggest that quarantine have negative psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, anger. In particular NQ experiences more anger than PQ and the longer the period, the more depression, anxiety, PTSD, and anger. The result of this study will contribute to identify high risk individuals for mental health during quarantine.

5.
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry ; 13:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1197917
6.
Cancer Research ; 81(4 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1186386

ABSTRACT

Background: Triple-negativebreast cancer (TNBC) has the highest rate of distant metastasis and poorestoverallsurvival among all breast cancer subtypes. Adagloxad simolenin (AS;OBI-822)is a therapeutic vaccine comprisingthe synthetically manufactured tumor-associatedantigen Globo H linked to the carrier protein keyhole limpethemocyanin (KLH).The KLH provides antigenic immune recognition and T-cell responses. AS isco-administered witha saponin-based adjuvant OBI-821 to induce a humoralresponse. A phase 2 trial showed that AS/OBI-821exhibiteda trend for superior progression-free survival vs placebo in patientswhose breast cancers had higher GloboHexpression. Administrationof AS/OBI-821 resulted in IgM and IgG anti-Globo H humoral response and atrendtowards improved PFS in patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressingGlobo H. We describe therationale and design of GLORIA, an ongoing Phase III,randomized, open-label study to evaluate efficacy, safety, and quality of life(QoL) of AS plus standard of care (SOC) versus SOC alone in patients with high-risk, early-stage TNBC. The primary endpoint is invasive progression-freesurvival;secondary endpoints include overall survival, QoL, breastcancer-freeinterval, distant disease-free survival, safety, and tolerability. Trial Design: A phase 3 trial was initiated inDecember 2018 and had been slowly enrolling until being put on holddue to theCovid-19 pandemic. While the study wason hold the design waschanged from a placebo-control to astandard-of-care control trial based onfeedback from investigators and leading breast cancer advisers, that thenumberof placebo injections was a serious burden on patients. Furthermore, it wasapparent that blinding wasquestionable given the expected and frequent localskin inflammation and low-grade fevers that accompany theAS/OBI-821 vaccineadministration and the absence of these obvious clinical signs and symptoms with the normalsaline placebo control.The main changes to the protocol are as follows:Methods: Eligibility includes patients with TNBC (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor <5%,and HER2-negative) with nonmetastatic disease and 1) either residual invasive disease of ≥1 cm in breast or ≥1 positiveaxillary node following neoadjuvantchemotherapy;Pathological Stage IIB or III disease treated with adequateadjuvant chemotherapy alone;received ≥4 cycles of standard taxane- and/oranthracycline-basedchemotherapy;randomized within 12 weeks of surgery, adjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy,or radiation therapy.Inaddition, tumors must express Globo H (H-score of ≥15 by central laboratory analysis using a validatedimmunohistochemical assay). Subjects in the AS/OBI-821 group will receive 30 μg of AS in combination with 100 μgofOBI-821.This revised study will start re-enrolling patients as soon as Covid-19 restrictions are lifted with the firstcountry being South Korea with an anticipated start date in Q4/2020.

7.
Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment ; 36(6):832-840, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1055231

ABSTRACT

The social and economic losses caused by viruses such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 has been serious. In this study, the size of airborne droplet nuclei particles and the number of virions generated by speaking or coughing were analyzed. Particle collection efficiencies of E11 and H13 grade air filters used in commercial air purifiers were evaluated for different particle sizes and the possibility of removing the airborne droplet nuclei particles by air purifiers was studied. In addition, the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virion concentration and dose by using air purifiers was theoretically investigated for elementary school classrooms. When an infected student continuously emits virions with a rate of 6.0x10(5) virions/h in a 165 m(3)-sized classroom, the virion concentration and dose was estimated to be reduced by more than 60% by using an air purifier of clean air delivery rate (CADR) 780 m(3)/hr and by more than 70% by using two air purifiers (that is, CADR 1560 m(3)/h) compared to when not in use of the air purifier. However, to prevent the spread of infection by the air stream generated by the air purifier, it is necessary to operate an instruction for using the air purifier such as facing the air outlet toward the ceiling and installing at least 50 cm away from occupants.

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