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1.
British Journal of Social Work ; : 19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852944

ABSTRACT

Borders play a profound role in human life. In many settings, land borders are highly permeable and provide little barrier to movement, communication and interaction. In other circumstances, borders are highly rigid, difficult to cross and can demarcate vast economic and social disparities. The widely differing circumstances related to border creation and maintenance have deep effects that are worthy of social work attention and engagement. There has been serious attention to issues of globalisation, immigration and human rights in the social work literature. Our focus on borders is related to, but distinct from these issues, and therefore, has something unique to offer. Increased globalisation has led to a major reconceptualisation in our understanding of borders. The COVID-19 epidemic demonstrates the limited relevance of borders in some circumstances (spreading of the virus) but the heightened relevance of borders in other circumstances (travel restrictions). Social work practitioners have a role in framing the understanding of borders and resulting policies. Our focus is to address the question: How has social work engaged with border issues? We examine three international cases and conduct a comparative analysis to examine similarities and differences. From the analysis, we draw conclusions to further understanding for social work. Borders play a profound role in human life. This paper aims to examine how social work has engaged with borders. Conducting a comparative analysis of three international borders we describe impacts on practice and the profession. Noting similarities and differences we also assert generalisable conclusions and welcome engagement to further refine the analysis. Never before has it felt so timely to reflect on the issue of borders. The places that we come from have all been sharply affected by having land borders with neighbouring countries. At the time of writing, the contours of division that have marked our territorial separateness have come to the fore with COVID-19 restrictions impacting the movements of populations. Against this backdrop, social work has at its core an international definition and attendant global identity. Historically less clear is social work's position and stance adopted in dealing with borders. This paper is our attempt to bring attention to salient issues. First, by way of context, this topic will be examined within the context of key messages from literature.

2.
Korean Economic Review ; 38(2):251-283, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820527

ABSTRACT

Compliance with the public health authority guidelines is crucial to prevent the spread of COVID-19 successfully. By analyzing individual responses to a survey, we identify the weakest links, i.e., those who do not follow the guidelines as much as others do, and why they are failing. We find that individuals older than 60 are most enthusiastic in protecting their and others' health and that those younger than 30 are least enthusiastic. We categorize the factors possibly influencing the precautionary behavior into three groups: preference, belief and constraint. It turns out that although beliefs on the effectiveness of protective measures do predict individual differences in their endeavors, they do not vary significantly across gender and age groups. On the other hand, risk, time, and social preferences explain individual differences well and significantly differ across gender and age groups. We also derive an implication for managing long-term risks due to fatigue and depression.

3.
13th International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction, IHCI 2021 ; 13184 LNCS:106-116, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1782733

ABSTRACT

Interest in the proper treatment of mental health has been rapidly growing under the steep changes in society, family structure and lifestyle. COVID-19 pandemic in addition drastically accelerates this necessity worldwide, which brings about a huge demand on digital therapeutics for this purpose. One of the key ingredients to this attempt is the appropriately designed practice contents for the prevention and treatment of mental illness. In this paper, we present novel deep generative models to construct the mental training contents based upon mindfulness approach, with a particular focus on providing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on the self-talk techniques. To this end, we first introduce ACT script generator for mindfulness meditation. With over one-thousand sentences collected from the various sources for ACT training practices, we develop a text generative model through fine-tuning on the variant of GPT-2. Next, we introduce a voice generator to implement the self-talk technique, a text-to-speech application using the ACT training script generated above. Computational and human evaluation results demonstrate the high quality of generated training scripts and self-talk contents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to generate the meditation contents using artificial intelligence techniques, which is able to deeply touch the human mind to care and cure the mental health of individuals. Applications would be main treatment contents for digital therapeutics and meditation curriculum design. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
Biophysical Journal ; 121(3):192A-192A, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1755828
6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S375, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746451

ABSTRACT

Background. Regdanvimab is a monoclonal antibody with activity against SARSCoV-2. A Phase 2/3 study with two parts is currently ongoing and data up to Day 28 of Part 1 is available while the data from 1315 patients enrolled in Part 2 are expected in June 2021. Methods. This phase 2/3, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with 2 parts is aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of regdanvimab in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, not requiring supplemental oxygen therapy. Patients aged >18 with the onset of symptoms within 7 days were eligible to be enrolled. Results. In Part 1, 307 patients (101, 103, and 103 patients in the regdanvimab 40 mg/kg, regdanvimab 80 mg/kg, and placebo groups, respectively) were confirmed to have COIVD-19 by RT-qPCR at Day 1 (or Day 2). Regdanvimab significantly reduced the proportion of patients who required hospitalization or supplemental oxygen therapy compared to placebo (8.7% in the placebo vs. 4.0% in the regdanvimab 40 mg/kg). The difference in events rate was even larger in patients who met the high-risk criteria and confirmed a 66.1% reduction in patients receiving regdanvimab 40 mg/kg (Table 1). The median time to clinical recovery was shortened by 2.9 days (7.18 days for regdanvimab 40 mg/kg and 10.03 days for placebo;high-risk). Also, greater reductions from baseline viral load were shown in regdanvimab groups (Figure 1). The safety results confirmed that the regdanvimab was safe and well-tolerated. Occurrence of adverse events (Table 2) and results of other safety assessments were generally comparable among the 3 groups. The overall rate of infusion-related reaction was low and no serious adverse events or deaths were reported. The anti-drug antibody positive rate was low in the regdanvimab groups (1.4% in regdanvimab vs. 4.5% in placebo), and no antibody-dependent enhancement was reported. Conclusion. Results from the first part of the study indicate that regdanvimab may lower the rate of hospitalisation or requirement of oxygen supplementation, with the greatest benefit noted in patients at high-risk of progressing to severe COVID-19. The second part of the study remains ongoing and blinded. Therefore, results for the primary endpoint are forthcoming and will be presented at IDWeek.

7.
Stroke ; 53(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1724031

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression and anxiety impact recovery and quality of life in 1 in 3 stroke survivors. Caregivers also experience burnout. Creative art-based therapy boosts feelings of accomplishment, self-esteem, and neuroplasticity by stimulating diverse brain regions. Few outpatient art therapy programs exist for stroke survivors and caregivers, limited further during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to implement an outpatient, student-run virtual art therapy curriculum using a patient-carer team approach to foster a supportive peer community, reduce depressive symptoms in survivors, and increase relief for caregivers. Methods: A multidisciplinary team of stroke physician, nurse, occupational therapist, clinic managers, and undergraduate student volunteers created an evidenced-based art therapy curriculum feasible for stroke survivors. An art educator trained volunteers in empathetic communication, teaching techniques, and patient privacy. Participants pre-registered for weekly 1 hour classes held via video conference and received art materials by mail. We administered surveys at initial registration and quarterly. An institutional grant provided funding. Results: From September 2020 - July 2021, Healing Strokes hosted 30 classes using the curriculum (Table 1) for 71 survivors and caregivers from 9 states at a 1:5 volunteer-to-participant ratio. 20 participants (14 survivors, 6 caregivers) self-reported benefits of peer support, creative inspiration, increased sense of accomplishment, and improvement in speech and fine motor skills. Conclusion: Implementation of a virtual outpatient art-based therapy program for stroke survivors and caregivers is feasible with participants self-reporting benefits in functional recovery and mood. Post-stroke supportive care programs can expand to include art therapy during a pandemic. Future studies can validate the impact on peer support, function, and post-stroke depression and anxiety. (Figure Presented).

8.
Korean Journal of Transplantation ; 35(4):253-256, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1648231

ABSTRACT

The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on humoral and cellular immunity in transplant recipients remains unknown. We report the case of a 78-year-old kidney transplant recipient who experienced acute T cell-mediated rejection after receiving the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). She had no history of acute rejection throughout the 13 years after deceased donor kidney transplantation. Fifteen days after receiving the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the recipient visited our center with a mild headache and fever. Her serum creatinine level had increased from 0.61 to 4.95 mg/dL. Kidney allograft biopsy indicated acute T cell-mediated rejection (grade IB) with no pathologic evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike-immunoglobulin G and -immunoglobulin M measurements were weak positive and negative, respectively. Careful monitoring of kidney allograft function is vital for transplant recipients undergoing COVID-19 vaccination. © 2021 Korean Journal of Transplantation. All rights reserved.

9.
Ieee Access ; 9:164503-164509, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583826

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the protocol structure of ATSC 3.0, the next-generation terrestrial broadcasting standard, and explains in-depth the technology of Real-Time Object Delivery over Unidirectional Transport (ROUTE) and MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH). Specifically, it considers both low and service signaling methodologies of ROUTE/DASH, that enable immersive media, stereoscopic 3D, and 360 virtual reality (VR), delivery in ATSC 3.0. Furthermore, this paper also provides the signaling examples to give readers new perspectives on immersive broadcasting through ROUTE/DASH in ATSC 3.0. In the era of COVID-19 pandemics, this kind of type, the ATSC 3.0 immersive media service method is expected to become an alternative to performance and media consumption in the future.

10.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 21(9):14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1497589

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the average concentration of PM2.5 in Seoul decreased by 44% compared to that in March 2019 (from 45 mu g m(-3) to 25 mu g m(-3)). In this study, the synoptic and local meteorological conditions during the period with reduced PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed. The synoptic meteorological conditions during March 2020 show a common characteristic of strong zonal flow and winds. Therefore, air circulation was active and meteorological conditions were unfavorable to long-range transboundary transport. Local meteorological conditions such as wind and turbulent motion at the surface were sensitive to PM2.5 concentrations. Our analyses indicate that the greatly reduced PM2.5 concentrations were mainly influenced by synoptic rather than local conditions. Decreased demand for heating of buildings due to warmer temperatures in March 2020, the economic slowdown following the outbreak of COVID-19, and the implementation of guidelines aimed at controlling particulate matter (PM) were other important causes of reduced PM2.5 emissions. A decrease in long-range transboundary transport contributed to the reduced PM2.5 concentrations.

12.
50th International Congress and Exposition of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1485214

ABSTRACT

In case of pneumonia often accompanied by serious complications, sometimes lead to death, early diagnosis and continuous monitoring can greatly reduce the dangerousness. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the need for new diagnostic tools that can minimize medical personnel engagement while avoiding equipment being exposed to afflicted patients. In this study, we developed cough monitoring algorithm by detecting the vibrations of human body. The acceleration response at each part of body was measured to determine propagation characteristics of vibration when cough occurs. and it was confirmed that the monitoring accuracy was improved when use the vibration signal compared to the case of using only acoustic signal. After that, we analyzed the cough sounds in terms of psych-acoustical and sound-energy aspects. For the characteristic features derived by quantifying the results of analysis, the data augmentation process was applied, and finally AI-based pneumonia diagnosis algorithm was constructed. To estimate the performance of algorithm, the accuracy of pneumonia determination in new cough cases was verified. It showed the higher value than the accuracy of pulmonologists with only cough sounds. Therefore, developed algorithm that perform continuous cough monitoring and reliable pneumonia diagnosis can be used as an effective supplementary tool for early diagnosis and prognosis of pneumonia. © INTER-NOISE 2021 .All right reserved.

13.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 28-36, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that super-spreading events (SSEs) and multiple-spreading events (MSEs) are a characteristic feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, data regarding the possibility of SSEs or MSEs in healthcare settings are limited. METHODS: This study was performed at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. We analysed the nosocomial COVID-19 cases that occurred in healthcare workers and inpatients and their caregivers between January and 20th December 2020. Cases with two to four secondary cases were defined as MSEs and those with five or more secondary cases as SSEs. FINDINGS: We identified 21 nosocomial events (single-case events, N = 12 (57%); MSE + SSE, N = 9 (43%)) involving 65 individuals with COVID-19. Of these 65 individuals, 21 (32%) were infectors. The infectors tended to have a longer duration between symptom onset and diagnostic confirmation than did the non-infectors (median two days vs zero days, P=0.08). Importantly, 12 (18%) individuals were responsible for MSEs and one (2%) for an SSE, which collectively generated 35 (54%) secondary cases. CONCLUSION: In a hospital with thorough infection-control measures, approximately 70% of the nosocomial cases of COVID-19 did not generate secondary cases, and one-fifth of the infectors were responsible for SSEs and MSEs, which accounted for approximately half of the total cases. Early case identification, isolation, and extensive contact tracing are important for the prevention of transmission and SSEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Allergy Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; 9(3):113-114, 2021.
Article in Korean | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1359341
15.
23rd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2021 ; 1419:63-66, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1355926

ABSTRACT

There have been suggestions of remote usability test and experiment methods to collect human performance data while interacting with prototypes. The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has increased the necessity of remote testing methods due to constraints on interacting with participants in the same location with physical contacts. The present study introduces a convenient and effective remote experiment method using a commercial video conference application. While an experimental prototype is running in an experimenter’s computer, a participant in another place can access and manipulate the prototype to complete given experimental tasks using the remote-control functions in conference application. A case study to investigate the effects of text features in vehicle infotainment systems on driver’s performance validated the utility of the suggesting method. Even though the method includes limitations compared to conventional lab experiments, the advantage seems overwhelming to the disadvantages when the remote data collection experiment is inevitably required. It is expected that the suggested method can be used with some modifications based on context of each experiment. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

16.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 37(5):3-12, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1285515

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to identify problems and improvement measures that the current residential space has by diagnosing the perception and demand for Korean dwellers. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 850 residents of apartment in korea aged 20 to 70. The survey consisted of the questionnaire category;household status, location, space usage behavior, preferred housing type, etc. Based on the data out of the survey, statistical analysis are conducted to find out significant pattern of respondents’ percepion and satisfaction. First, it was found that there is a correlation between the time the respondents stay in and the perception of the most important space in residential. The longer the repondents stayed in the house, the more they chose the kitchen‧dining room and living room. Secondly, satisfaction degree of residential and the influencing factors were investigated. Even though the overall satisfaction was 3.44 points in average, there was a difference in satisfaction by region. In particular, the score was lower in metropolitan areas such as Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Busan compared to Sejong City where new housing was actively supplied, which is indicating that the location the respondets live had an effect on housing satisfaction. Next, we looked at the demand for housing scale expansion. The gap between the current and desired residentaial size was the highest on 20s single-person households, which suggests that it is necessary to check that sufficient residential space is provided to young single-family households with relatively low economic efficiency. The survey also includes the spatial composition preference of the residential, showing that most prefered residentaial is the type the space is divided into 3 part;the living room, bedroom, and kitchen/dining(51.5%). Although there is a typical preferred spatial composition type across all respondents, the preferences are diverse even in the same age group and family composition. Accordingly it is necessary to reconsider the way of constructing apartment that are currently uniformly supplied by typical type. Considering the current situation of COVID-19 and the rapid change in the residential paradigm, this study was meaningful in deriving implications based on the perception survey related to residential spaces in Korea. © 2021 Architectural Institute of Korea.

17.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(11): e711-e714, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282003
18.
Biosensors ; 11(4):15, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209874

ABSTRACT

Given the fatal health conditions caused by emerging infectious pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, their rapid diagnosis is required for preventing secondary infections and guiding correct treatments. Although various molecular diagnostic methods based on nucleic acid amplification have been suggested as gold standards for identifying different species, these methods are not suitable for the rapid diagnosis of pathogens owing to their long result acquisition times and complexity. In this study, we developed a rapid bio-optical sensor that uses a ball-lensed optical fiber (BLOF) probe and an automatic analysis platform to precisely diagnose infectious pathogens. The BLOF probe is easy to align and has a high optical sensing sensitivity (1.5-fold) and a large detection range (1.2-fold) for an automatic optical sensing system. Automatic signal processing of up to 250 copies/reaction of DNA of Q-fever-causing Coxiella burnetii was achieved within 8 min. The clinical utility of this system was demonstrated with 18 clinical specimens (9 Q-fever and 9 other febrile disease samples) by measuring the resonant wavelength shift of positive or negative samples for Coxiella burnetii DNA. The results from the system revealed the stable and automatic optical signal measurement of DNA with 100% accuracy. We envision that this BLOF probe-based sensor would be a practical tool for the rapid, simple, and sensitive diagnosis of emerging infectious pathogens.

19.
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry ; 13:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1197918
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