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3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2163357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the organisation of a COVID-19 vaccination campaign for healthcare workers (HCWs) within a university hospital presents a challenge of a particularly large scale and urgency. Here, we evaluate the in-hospital vaccination process and centre for HCWs at LMU University Hospital in Munich, Germany. METHODS: We executed a mixed-method process evaluation of the vaccination centre at LMU University Hospital during the first COVID-19 vaccination campaign. In a programme monitoring, we continuously assessed the implementation of the centre's operational management including personnel resources. In evaluating the outreach to and satisfaction of the target group with the centre and process, we executed two anonymous surveys aimed at the HCWs vaccinated at the in-hospital centre (1) as well as centre staff members (2). RESULTS: staff numbers and process time per person were reduced several times during the first vaccination campaign. Lessons concerning appointment scheduling were learned. HCWs vaccinated at the in-hospital centre were satisfied with the process. A longer waiting time between admission and inoculation, perceived dissatisfying accessibility as well as an increased frequency of observed adverse events were linked to a reduced satisfaction. Comparatively subpar willingness to adhere to non-pharmaceutical measures was observed. Centre staff reported high satisfaction and a workload relatively equal to that of their regular jobs. Our outcomes provide references for the implementation of an in-hospital vaccination centre in similar settings.

4.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1007205, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163181

ABSTRACT

Background: As the worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues for a long time, early prediction of the maximum severity is required for effective treatment of each patient.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163014

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The innate immune responses of upper airway could further our understanding toward antiviral strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We characterize the potential of interferon (IFN)-λ as an innate immune inducer for the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in the lung and the therapeutic efficacy of intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ to resolve acute lung infection. Methods: Syrian golden hamsters were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection depending on IFN-λ inoculation were tested. Results: SARS-CoV-2-infected Syrian golden hamsters exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and high viral mRNA level at 3 days post-infection (dpi). Although viral replication was reduced completely from 7 dpi, the pathologic findings remained prominent until 14 dpi in the lung of hamsters. The transcription of IFN-λ was significantly induced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection with the increase of IFN-stimulated genes. Intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ restricted SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of infected completely from 3 dpi with markedly reduction of inflammatory cytokines. The transcriptional phenotypes were altered to the direction of damage repair and tissue remodeling in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters following intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ, which improved SARS-CoV-2-caused lung damage. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that IFN-λ might be a potent innate immune inducer in the lung and intranasal inoculation of IFN-λ resolves SARS-CoV-2 infection with rapid viral clearance and improvement of lung damage.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; 37(48):e342, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms on quality of life remains unclear. This study aimed to describe such persistent symptoms and their relationships with quality of life, including clinical frailty and subjective health status.

7.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2162459

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 has prompted widespread school closures and physical distancing measures. Concerns regarding COVID-19 school closures often increase stress levels in parents. Objective(s): This study examined whether higher levels of parental concerns were associated with children's problematic behaviors and other factors during COVID-19-related primary school closures. Method(s): Participants were 217 parents who responded to a webbased questionnaire covering parental concerns, subjective stress, and depression;children's sleep patterns, behavioral problems, and changes in activity level after COVID-19;previously received mental health services;and media usage during the online-only class period from community center in Suwon city. Result(s): The number of parental concerns was associated with children's behavioral problem index (BPI) score (Pearson correlation 0.211, p < 0.01), sleep problems (0.183, p < 0.01), increased smartphone usage (0.166, p < 0.05), increased TV usage (0.187, p < 0.01), parents' subjective stress levels (0.168, p < 0.05), and parental depression (0.200, p < 0.01). In families with children who previously received mental health services, the children reportedly suffered from more sleep and behavioral problems but not increased media usage, and parents noted more stress and depression. Parental concerns are related to family factors such as change of caregiver, no available caregiver, decreased household income, and recent adverse life events. Economically vulnerable people also reported higher rates of reported caregiver burden during COVID-19-related primary school closures, thus will require the potential heightened mental health needs. Conclusion(s): Ongoing monitoring of mental health at risky group and multiple support systems should be considered for parents having difficulty in caring their children.

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1):403, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the strong recommendation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) vaccination, many patients with medical comorbidities are being immunized. However, the safety of vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases has not been well established. We report a new case of biopsy-proven IgA vasculitis with nephritis presenting as a nephrotic syndrome after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a patient with a history of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old man with a history of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis presented with purpura in both lower limbs, followed by nephrotic syndrome after the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Skin and renal biopsy revealed IgA vasculitis with nephritis. The patient's past medical history of leukocytoclastic vasculitis and features of chronicity in renal pathology suggest an acute exacerbation of preexisting IgA vasculitis after COVID-19 vaccination. After the steroid and renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use, purpura and acute kidney injury recovered within a month. Subnephrotic proteinuria with microscopic hematuria remained upon follow-up. CONCLUSION: Physicians should keep in mind the potential (re)activation of IgA vasculitis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. It is important to closely monitor COVID-19 vaccinated patients, particularly those with autoimmune diseases.

9.
Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy ; : e0045222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161791

ABSTRACT

Although several antiviral agents have become available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment, oral drugs are still limited. Camostat mesylate, an orally bioavailable serine protease inhibitor, has been used to treat chronic pancreatitis in South Korea, and it has an in vitro inhibitory potential against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. We randomly assigned patients to receive either camostat mesylate (DWJ1248) or placebo orally for 14 days. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of subject symptoms within 14 days, measured using a subjective 4-point Likert scale. Three hundred forty-two patients were randomized. The primary endpoint was nonsignificant, where the median times to clinical improvement were 7 and 8 days in the camostat mesylate group and the placebo group, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.43;P = 0.50). A post hoc analysis showed that the difference was greatest at day 7, without reaching significance. In the high-risk group, the proportions of patients with clinical improvement up to 7 days were 45.8% (50/109) in the camostat group and 38.4% (40/104) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33;95% CI, 0.77 to 2.31;P = 0.31);the ordinal scale score at day 7 improved in 20.0% (18/90) of the camostat group and 13.3% (12/90) of the placebo group (OR = 1.68;95% CI, 0.75 to 3.78;P = 0.21). Adverse events were similar in the two groups. Camostat mesylate was safe in the treatment of COVID-19. Although this study did not show clinical benefit in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, further clinical studies for high-risk patients are needed. (This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT04521296).

10.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 12:12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the United States, influenza activity during the 2021-2022 season was modest and sufficient enough to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness for the first time since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness against lab-confirmed outpatient acute illness caused by predominant A(H3N2) viruses.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):7675, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2160208

ABSTRACT

Although ocular manifestations are reported in patients with COVID-19, consensus on ocular tropism of SARS-CoV-2 is lacking. Here, we infect K18-hACE2 transgenic mice with SARS-CoV-2 using various routes. We observe ocular manifestation and retinal inflammation with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the eyes of intranasally (IN)-infected mice. Intratracheal (IT) infection results in dissemination of the virus from the lungs to the brain and eyes via trigeminal and optic nerves. Ocular and neuronal invasions are confirmed using intracerebral (IC) infection. Notably, the eye-dropped (ED) virus does not cause lung infection and becomes undetectable with time. Ocular and neurotropic distribution of the virus in vivo is evident in fluorescence imaging with an infectious clone of SARS-CoV-2-mCherry. The ocular tropic and neuroinvasive characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 are confirmed in wild-type Syrian hamsters. Our data can improve the understanding regarding viral transmission and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and help in improving COVID-19 control procedures.

13.
Reviews in Medical Virology ; : e2414, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157907

ABSTRACT

The susceptibility, risk factors, and prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unknown. Thus, our study aims to assess the prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and medRxiv from 2019 to 1 June 2022 for cohort and case-control studies comparing the prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD and in the general population. We also compared the outcomes of patients receiving and not receiving 5-aminosalicylates (ASA), tumour necrosis factor antagonists, biologics, systemic corticosteroids, or immunomodulators for IBD. Thirty five studies were eligible for our analysis. Pooled odds ratio of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death in IBD compared to in non-IBD were 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-1.18), 1.09 (95% CI = 0.27-4.47), and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.32-1.42), respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease was not associated with increased hospitalisation, ICU admission, or death. Susceptibility to COVID-19 did not increase with any drugs for IBD. Hospitalisation, ICU admission, and death were more likely with 5-ASA and corticosteroid use. COVID-19-related hospitalisation (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.53;95% CI = 0.38-0.74) and death (OR: 0.13;95% CI = 0.13-0.70) were less likely with Crohn's disease than ulcerative colitis (UC). In conclusion, IBD does not increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19. However, physicians should be aware that additional monitoring is needed in UC patients or in patients taking 5-ASA or systemic corticosteroids.

14.
JAMA Network Open ; 5(12):e2246624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157645

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 is an effective method for individuals to reduce negative health outcomes. However, widespread COVID-19 vaccination among children has been challenging owing to parental hesitancy.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(33):12289-12294, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2155828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been approved and widely distributed, raising public concerns regarding the side effects of immunization, as the incidence of ease. Although many adverse events following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine have been reported, neurological complications are relatively uncommon. Herein, we report a rare case of multiple cranial palsies following COVID-19 vaccination in an adolescent patient. CASE SUMMARY: A previously healthy, 14-year-old Asian girl with facial palsy presented to the emergency department with inability to close the right eye or wrinkle right side of the forehead, and pain in the right cheek. She had received second dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) 18 days before onset of symptoms. She was diagnosed with Bell's palsy and prescribed a steroid (1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone) based on symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings. However, the next day, all sense of taste was lost with inability to swallow solid food;the gag reflex was absent. Horizontal diplopia was also present. Due to worsening of her condition, she was given high-dose steroids (1 g/day methylprednisolone) for 3 days and then discharged with oral steroids. Improvement in the symptoms was noted 4 days post steroid treatment completion. At the most recent follow-up, her general condition was good with no symptoms except diplopia;ocular motility disturbances were noted. Hence, prism glasses were prescribed for diplopia relief. CONCLUSION: Small-angle exotropia was observed in the facial, trigeminal, and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies, in our patient. The etiology of this adverse effect following vaccination was thought to be immunological.

16.
J Chest Surg ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2155636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been found to cause life-threatening respiratory failure, which can progress to irreversible lung damage. Lung transplantation can be a life-saving treatment in patients with terminal lung disease (e.g., acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by infection). This study aimed to present the clinical course and results after initial lung transplantation in patients with severe COVID-19 who did not recover even with optimal medical care. METHODS: From August 2019 to February 2022, this study enrolled 10 patients with COVID-19 (5 men;median age, 55.7 years) who underwent lung transplantation at a single center in Korea. All patients' characteristics, clinical pathway, overall survival, complications, and operative data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or an oxygenator in a right ventricular assist device circuit was applied to 90% of the patients, and the median length of extracorporeal life support before operation was 48.5 days. There were no cases of mortality after a median follow-up of 372.8 days (interquartile range, 262.25-489 days). The major complications included the requirement for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in 2 cases (20%), re-transplantation in 1 case (10%), and re-exploration due to bleeding in 2 cases (20%). During the follow-up period, 3 out of 10 patients died. CONCLUSION: Excellent early outcomes were observed for patients who underwent lung transplantation. Thus, lung transplantation can be an effective and feasible treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease caused by COVID-19.

17.
Work ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2154632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of home delivery services has expanded due to coronavirus disease - 2019, and couriers' high level of work intensity has become a severe social issue in various nations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) caused by frequent loading and unloading actions, known to be the most demanding tasks for couriers. METHODS: A self-report survey and post-hoc interview were employed to collect personal information, task frequency, and the incidence of MSDs. Frequent actions during loading and unloading packages were identified, and the Rapid Entry Body Assessment (REBA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equations were assessed. RESULTS: Approximately 29.5% of the 44 subjects suffered from MSDs, and identify the types of actions that frequently occur during loading and unloading packages. According to the REBA survey, 60% of the responses for both loading and unloading are distributed within the risk range of 8-13 points, suggesting a high risk (mean REBA score: 8.8 (loading), 8.5 (unloading)). In every case, NIOSH determined that the lifting index (LI) was harmful (mean LI: 1.62). Thereby, the bending or twisting posture of the hands and neck, long horizontal distance between the packages and the body, and high lifting frequency were identified as major problems. CONCLUSION: The study identified a very high level of musculoskeletal risk for couriers, and the detailed working methods and body parts vulnerable to MSDs.

18.
Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World (Third Edition) ; : 145-171, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149106

ABSTRACT

“Four Case Studies” examines four case studies of the communications actions taken by governmental and nongovernmental groups in the 2021 Texas Ice Storm, Wildfires, COVID pandemic, and Hurricanes Katrina and Ida. These case studies track how social media has become the dominant news source during disasters and how a bidirectional flow of information between all parties in a disaster enhances situational awareness and the delivery of timely and accurate information. The impacts of misinformation and disinformation are examined in each case study.

19.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: There are limited data comparing the transmission rates and kinetics of viable virus shedding of the Omicron variant to those of the Delta variant. We compared these rates in hospitalized patients infected with Delta and Omicron variants.

20.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 28(3_SUPPL):698-699, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2147387
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