Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1926, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839522

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis is a critical complication in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies or with viral pneumonia caused by influenza virus or SARS­CoV­2. Although early and accurate diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis can maximize clinical outcomes, current diagnostic methods are time-consuming and poorly sensitive. Here, we assess the ability of 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluorosorbitol (18F-FDS) positron emission tomography (PET) to specifically and noninvasively detect Aspergillus infections. We show that 18F-FDS PET can be used to visualize Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the lungs, brain, and muscles in mouse models. In particular, 18F-FDS can distinguish pulmonary aspergillosis from Staphylococcus aureus infection, both of which induce pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. Thus, our results indicate that the combination of 18F-FDS PET and appropriate clinical information may be useful in the differential diagnosis and localization of invasive aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Animals , Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Aspergillus fumigatus , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mice , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Life (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to have adverse impacts on psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in medical visits due to a wide range of psychiatric disorders in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits of all Korean children and adolescents (0-19 years old) due to the 12 following psychiatric disorders were investigated: autism; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; primary insomnia; schizophrenia; panic disorder; hypochondriasis; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); anxiety disorder; anorexia nervosa; and adephagia. The mean medical visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. The mean number of clinical visits due to autism, ADHD, depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.05). The higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders was maintained in age and sex subgroups. The female and adolescent groups demonstrated a higher mean number of medical visits due to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The medical visits due to many psychiatric disorders were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Korea. Women and adolescents were more susceptible to psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Pers Med ; 12(4)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776273

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been suggested to increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders. This study expanded upon previous findings by estimating the changes in medical visits for various psychological disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before COVID-19. The entire Korean population ≥ 20 years old (~42.3 million) was included. The first COVID-19 case in Korea was reported on 20 January 2020. Thus, the period from January 2018 through to February 2020 was classified as "before COVID-19", and the period from March 2020 through to May 2021 was classified as "during COVID-19". Monthly medical visits due to the following 13 psychological disorders were evaluated: depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, schizophrenia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, alcoholism, nicotine dependency, and gambling addiction were evaluated. The differences in the number of medical visits and the variance of diseases before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Levene's test. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. The frequencies of medical visits for depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction were higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.001). However, the frequencies of medical visits for schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic (all p < 0.001). The psychological disorders with a higher frequency of medical visits during COVID-19 were consistent in all age and sex subgroups. In the old age group, the number of medical visits due to schizophrenia was also higher during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Many psychological disorders, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, primary insomnia, panic disorder, hypochondriasis, PTSD, anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, addephagia, and gambling addiction, had a higher number of related medical visits, while disorders such as schizophrenia, alcoholism, and nicotine dependency had a lower number of related medical visits during COVID-19 among Korean adults.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 130-136, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to that during the prepandemic period. METHODS: Data from participants in the Korean Community Health Survey in 2019 and 2020 aged ≥ 19 years old were analyzed. In total, the data of 223,306 participants from the 2020 group were compared with the data of 217,133 participants from the 2019 group regarding the experience and severity of depression. The experience of depression was surveyed in terms of a history of sadness or despair for ≥2 weeks in the last year. In addition, the PHQ-9 scores were used, and participants with PHQ-9 scores ≥10 were recategorized as having moderate to severe depression. The odds for depression of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group based on the survey and PHQ-9 scores were calculated using simple or multiple logistic regression with complex sampling with weighted values. RESULTS: The rate of depression experience was lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group. The odds of experiencing depression were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.95, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.91-0.98, P = 0.004). The odds of moderate to severe depression were also lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (aOR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88-0.97, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The rate of depression experience was not higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the prepandemic period in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2136137, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567891

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial psychological effect on young people. A quantitative assessment of the association between the pandemic and stress and suicidality in youths is needed. Objective: To investigate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with self-reported stress and suicide-related behaviors in youths. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) conducted in 2019 and 2020 with youths aged 12 to 18 years. Statistical analysis was performed from January to February 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for subjective stress level, sadness or despair, suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts among 2020 participants were compared with those of the 2019 participants using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling using weighted values. Results: The 48 443 youths in the 2019 KYRBWS (24 917 male youths [51.3%]; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.7] years) and the 44 216 youths in the 2020 KYRBWS (23 103 male youths [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 15.1 [1.7] years) were compared. The degree of subjective stress was lower in the 2020 participants than in the 2019 participants (severe stress: adjusted OR [aOR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]; very severe stress: aOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.60-0.72]). Sadness or despair was also lower in the 2020 participants than in the 2019 participants (aOR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.78-0.84]). There were fewer suicide-related behaviors, including suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts, among the 2020 participants than among the 2019 participants (suicidal thoughts: aOR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.80]; suicide planning: aOR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.96]; suicide attempts: aOR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.58-0.70]). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that severe stress, sadness or despair and suicide-related behaviors had inverse associations with the early COVID-19 pandemic in Korean youths. These findings suggest that levels of high stress decreased among Korean youths in the early period of the pandemic compared with prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Sadness , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
7.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470901

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association of income level with susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Using the Korean National Health Insurance COVID-19 Database cohort, medical claim data from 2015 through 2020 were collected. A total of 7943 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 4 June 2020 were included. A total of 118,914 participants had negative COVID-19 PCR tests. Income levels were classified by 20th percentiles based on 2019 Korean National Health Insurance premiums. The 20th percentile income levels were categorized into three groups (low, middle, and high). The relationship of income level with susceptibility to COVID-19 and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. A high income level was related to lower odds of COVID-19 infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-0.83, p < 0.001). The negative association between income level and COVID-19 infection was maintained in all subgroups. Patients with low income levels were susceptible to COVID-19 infection; however, there was no relation of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with income level in the Korean population.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428995

ABSTRACT

Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral tolerance in bats. Here we report the establishment of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR libraries for the screening of the model megabat, Pteropus alecto. We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate P. alecto cells for infection with two different viruses: mumps virus and influenza A virus, respectively. Independent screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells and human cells. The MTHFD1 inhibitor, carolacton, potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We also discovered that bats have lower expression levels of MTHFD1 than humans. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Aminohydrolases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics , Multienzyme Complexes/genetics , Pandemics , Aminohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/antagonists & inhibitors , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens , Multienzyme Complexes/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Viruses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/genetics
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354992

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the associations of the susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thyroid diseases. Korea National Health Insurance Database Coronavirus disease 2019 (NHID-COVID-19) medical claim code data from 2015 to 2020 were analyzed. A total of 8070 COVID-19 patients and 32,280 matched control participants were evaluated for histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis. The relationships of susceptibility to, morbidity of, and mortality due to COVID-19 with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not associated with susceptibility to, morbidity of, or mortality due to COVID-19. Graves' disease was related to higher odds of mortality due to COVID-19 in the adjusted model but the confidence interval (CI) was wide, probably due to the small number of deaths among patients with Graves' disease (aOR = 11.43, 95% CI = 1.29-101.22, p = 0.029). Previous histories of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroiditis were not related to susceptibility to COVID-19. In addition, prior histories of thyroid diseases were not related to increased risks of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.

15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1970-1972.e3, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212376

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4 and was first approved for COVID-19 patients.5 However, whether remdesivir causes gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction (GI-ADRs) including hepatotoxicity is less clear.1-4,6 Therefore, we aimed to detect a diverse spectrum of GI-ADRs associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, the World Health Organization's international pharmacovigilance database of individual case safety reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295881

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether initial symptoms of COVID-19 are associated with mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: The data of 5628 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The maximum level of morbidity during hospital admission was classified as mild or severe, and patient mortality was recorded. Clinical symptoms were categorized as respiratory, gastrointestinal, general, and neurologic symptoms. The hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical symptoms associated with mortality were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The odds ratios (ORs) for clinical symptoms associated with morbidity were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Results: Of the included COVID-19 patients, 15.4% (808/5253) were classified as having severe morbidity. Morbidity was related to the clinical symptoms of cough, sputum, shortness of breath, vomiting/nausea, diarrhea, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. According to the symptom categories, respiratory and general symptoms were related to high morbidity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53, p < 0.001 for respiratory symptom and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.59, p < 0.001 for general symptom). Mortality was associated with the clinical symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and altered mental status or confusion. Among the symptom categories, respiratory symptoms were associated with a 1.17-fold increased HR for mortality (95% CI = 1.04-1.32, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Initial respiratory symptoms were related to high morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Morbidity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(6): 2262-2271.e2, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can affect chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but there is unclear real-world evidence regarding the association of underlying CRS with the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether CRS is associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. METHODS: Altogether, 219,959 adult patients who tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea from January 1 to May 15, 2020 (excluding self-referral) were identified in this nested case-control study with propensity score matching. Data on SARS-CoV-2 test results and COVID-19 worsened outcomes (ie, the need for oxygen therapy, intensive care, or mechanical ventilation, and death) were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. RESULTS: In this matched cohort, 380 of 12,217 patients with CRS (3.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with 310 patients without CRS (2.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). Moreover, 60 of 286 COVID-19 patients with CRS (21.0%) had severe COVID-19 outcomes, compared with 38 without CRS (13.3%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.71). Subgroup analysis identified that CRS patients with an absence of nasal polyps, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, or nonatopic type had a greater risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CRS, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, the absence of nasal polyps, or nonatopic type was associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in the Korean nationwide cohort. Clinicians should be cautious in determining prognosis and care for patients with CRS amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(5)2021 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201685

ABSTRACT

The government of South Korea implemented social distancing measures to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. This study aimed to compare the composite preterm (PT) or low birth weight (LBW) birth rates during the COVID-19 pandemic period in South Korea to those during the prior decade, and to find out the associations of childbirth during the pandemic period with PT or LBW births. Over a ten-year period, this retrospective cohort study was performed in a single hospital in the Seoul metropolitan city. The COVID-19 period was defined as running from 22 March 2020, to 31 October 2020, and the pre-COVID-19 period as the sum of parallel periods from 2011 to 2019. Trends in composite birth rates were investigated, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate independent factors associated with composite births. There were 246 and 2765 singleton deliveries during the COVID-19 period and the pre-COVID-19 period, respectively. The composite birth rate decreased from 16.5% to 9.8%. Childbirth during the pandemic was independently associated with a decreased composite birth rate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.563; 95% confidence interval, 0.355-0.844, p = 0.015). These findings suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic might provide an opportunity to find out preventive factors for PT or LBW births.

20.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12):1025-1031, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1032512

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. Methods: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3.3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3.0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2.9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.93-1.08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8.3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9.7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Interpretation: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL