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1.
Journal of Korean medical science ; 37(18):e134, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20;95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

2.
Clinical and Translational Discovery ; 2(2):e55, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819348
3.
Infect Chemother ; 54(1): 208-212, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780117

ABSTRACT

We report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated radiologically suspected organizing pneumonia with repeated negative Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples, but positive result from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Performing SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in upper respiratory tract samples only could fail to detect COVID-19-associated pneumonia, and SARS-CoV-2 could be an etiology of radiologically suspected organizing pneumonia.

4.
Infect Chemother ; 54(1): 102-113, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvoxamine reduces clinical deterioration in adult patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to identify risk factors for clinical deterioration in patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a CTC, in Seoul, Korea from January 15, 2021, to February 19, 2021. Symptomatic adult patients with positive results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real time-polymerase chain reaction within 3 days of randomization were assigned at random to receive 100 mg of fluvoxamine or placebo twice daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration defined by any of the following criteria: oxygen requirement to keep oxygen saturation over 94.0%, aggravation of pneumonia with dyspnea, or World Health Organization clinical progression scale 4 or greater. RESULTS: Of 52 randomized participants [median (interquartile range) age, 53.5 (43.3 - 60.0) years; 31 (60.0%) men], 44 (85.0%) completed the trial. Clinical deterioration occurred in 2 of 26 patients in each group (P >0.99). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Clinical deterioration occurred in 15 (6.0%) of 271 patients admitted to the CTC, and all of them were transferred to a hospital. In multivariate analysis, age between 55 and 64, fever and pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors for clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: In this study of adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who were admitted to the CTC, there was no significant differences in clinical deterioration between patients treated with fluvoxamine and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711863).

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical and virological characteristics of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 are limited. This prospective cohort study compared the characteristics of the delta variant to other variants. METHODS: Adult patients with mild COVID-19 who agreed to daily saliva sampling at a community isolation facility in South Korea between July and August 2021 were enrolled. Scores of 28 COVID-19-related symptoms were recorded daily. The genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA from saliva samples were measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR. Cell cultures were performed on saliva samples with positive genomic RNA results. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients (delta group, n = 108 [77%]; non-delta group, n = 33 [23%]) were enrolled. Myalgia was more common in the delta group than in the non-delta group (52% vs. 27%, P = .03). Total symptom scores were significantly higher in the delta group between days 3 to 10 after symptom onset. Initial genomic RNA titers were similar between the two groups; however, during the late course of disease, genomic RNA titers were higher in the delta group. Negative conversion of subgenomic RNA was slower in the delta group (median 9 vs. 5 days; P < .001). The duration of viral shedding in terms of positive viral culture was also longer in the delta group (median 5 vs. 3 days; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients infected with the delta variant exhibited prolonged viable viral shedding with more severe symptoms than those infected with non-delta variants.

6.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(2): 455-459, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data comparing the antibody responses of different coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine platforms according to dose with natural severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced antibody responses are limited. METHODS: Blood samples from adult patients with mild and severe COVID-19 and healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2nd dose at 12-week intervals) and BNT162b2 vaccine (2nd dose at 3-week intervals) were collected and compared by immunoglobulin G immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 specific spike protein using an in-house-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients, including 12 and 41 with mild and severe COVID-19, respectively, were analyzed. In addition, a total of 73 healthcare workers, including 37 who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 36 who received BNT162b2, were enrolled. Antibody responses after the first and second doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were similar to those in convalescent patients with mild COVID-19, but lower than those in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19, respectively. However, after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the antibody response was comparable to that in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the second dose of mRNA vaccination may be more beneficial in terms of long-term immunity and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection than a single dose of COVID-19 vaccination or homologous second challenge ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibody Formation/drug effects , /pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , /pharmacology , Humans
7.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
8.
Immune Netw ; 21(6): e41, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704288

ABSTRACT

Correlation between vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Thus, we investigated to determine whether the reactogenicity after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination is associated with antibody (Ab) titers and T cell responses. This study was prospective cohort study done with 131 healthcare workers at tertiary center in Seoul, South Korea. The degrees of the local reactions after the 1st and 2nd doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (ChAdOx1) vaccination were significantly associated with the S1-specific IgG Ab titers (p=0.003 and 0.01, respectively) and neutralizing Ab (p=0.04 and 0.10, respectively) in age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis, whereas those after the BNT162b2 vaccination did not show significant associations. T cell responses did not show significant associations with the degree of reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccination or the BNT162b2 vaccination. Thus, high degree of local reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccine may be used as an indicator of strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Immune Netw ; 21(6): e38, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626637

ABSTRACT

Recently, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (B.1.1.529) Omicron variant originated from South Africa in the middle of November 2021. SARS-CoV-2 is also called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19. Several studies already suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant would be the fastest transmissible variant compared to the previous 10 SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, interest, and alert. Few clinical studies reported the high transmissibility of the Omicron variant but there is insufficient time to perform actual experiments to prove it, since the spread is so fast. We analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which revealed a very high rate of mutation at amino acid residues that interact with angiostatin-converting enzyme 2. The mutation rate of COVID-19 is faster than what we prepared vaccine program, antibody therapy, lockdown, and quarantine against COVID-19 so far. Thus, it is necessary to find better strategies to overcome the current crisis of COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 2207-2210, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566200

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal swab is the most widely used diagnostic test for COVID-19 detection. However, enormous tests have posed a high risk of infection to medical professionals due to close contact with patients and substantial health burden. While automation of the nasopharyngeal swab is regarded as a potential solution to address these problems, the quantitative study of force for safe and effective control has not been widely performed yet. Hence, this study presents applied force during the standard nasopharyngeal swab sampling procedure using a handheld sensorized instrument. The sensorized instrument can simultaneously measure multi-axis forces and 6-DOF hand motion while allowing natural hand motion as is used in the standard swab sampling. To accurately measure force from the handheld instrument, the compensation of gravity bias is accomplished online while estimating the orientation of the hand with an embedded IMU sensor. As a result, the instrument can measure all three-axes forces by an error below 5 mN. A simulated test on a phantom model using the sensorized instrument shows that how the forces vary during the sampling sequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
13.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1861-1872, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493829

ABSTRACT

Germinal centers (GCs) elicit protective humoral immunity through a combination of antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells, following pathogen invasion or vaccination. However, the possibility of a GC response inducing protective immunity against reinfection following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. We found GC activity was consistent with seroconversion observed in recovered macaques and humans. Rechallenge with a different clade of virus resulted in significant reduction in replicating virus titers in respiratory tracts in macaques with high GC activity. However, diffuse alveolar damage and increased fibrotic tissue were observed in lungs of reinfected macaques. Our study highlights the importance of GCs developed during natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in managing viral loads in subsequent infections. However, their ability to alleviate lung damage remains to be determined. These results may improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune responses, resulting in better coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Germinal Center , Immunity, Humoral , Reinfection/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca , Seroconversion
14.
Nano Converg ; 8(1): 32, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484325

ABSTRACT

As the second wave of COVID-19 hits South Asia, an increasing deadly complication 'fungal infections (such as Mycosis, Candida and Aspergillus) outbreak' has been raised concern about the insufficient technologies and medicals for its diagnosis and therapy. Biosilica based nano-therapy can be used for therapeutic efficacy, yet their direct role as antibiotic agent with biocompatibility and stability remains unclear. Here, we report that a diatomaceous earth (DE) framework semiconductor composite conjugated DE and in-house synthesized zinc oxide (DE-ZnO), as an antibiotic agent for the enhancement of antibiotic efficacy and persistence. We found that the DE-ZnO composite had enhanced antibiotic activity against fungi (A. fumigatus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. enterica). The DE-ZnO composite provides enhancing large surface areas for enhancement of target pathogen binding affinity, as well as produces active ions including reactive oxygen species and metal ion for breaking the cellular network of fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the toxicity of DE-ZnO with 3 time less amount of dosage is 6 times lower than the commercial SiO2-ZnO. Finally, a synergistic effect of DE-ZnO and existing antifungal agents (Itraconazole and Amphotericin B) showed a better antifungal activity, which could be reduced the side effects due to the antifungal agents overdose, than a single antibiotic agent use. We envision that this DE-ZnO composite can be used to enhance antibiotic activity and its persistence, with less-toxicity, biocompatibility and high stability against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria which could be a valuable candidate in medical science and industrial engineering.

15.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481021

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective cohort study at a community facility designated for the isolation of individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 between 10 January and 22 February 2021 to investigate the relationship of viral shedding with symptom changes of COVID-19. In total, 89 COVID-19 adult patients (12 asymptomatic, 16 presymptomatic, 61 symptomatic) were enrolled. Symptom scores, the genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples with a cell culture were measured. Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients had a similar viral load to symptomatic patients during the early course of the disease, but exhibited a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity. Subgenomic RNA and viable virus by cell culture in asymptomatic patients were detected only until 3 days after diagnosis, and the positivity of the subgenomic RNA and cell culture in symptomatic patients gradually decreased in both from 40% in the early disease course to 13% at 10 days and 4% at 8 days after the symptom onset, respectively. In conclusion, symptomatic patients have a high infectivity with high symptom scores during the early disease course and gradually lose infectivity depending on the symptom. Conversely, asymptomatic patients exhibit a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity, despite a similar viral load during the early disease course.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Viral Load
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463553

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, is rapidly spreading and severely straining the capacities of public health communities and systems around the world. Therefore, accurate, rapid, and robust diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are crucial to prevent further spread of the infection, alleviate the burden on healthcare and diagnostic facilities, and ensure timely therapeutic intervention. To date, several detection methods based on nucleic acid amplification have been developed for the rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2. Despite the myriad of advancements in the detection methods for SARS-CoV-2, rapid sample preparation methods for RNA extraction from viruses have rarely been explored. Here, we report a rapid COVID-19 molecular diagnostic system that combines a self-powered sample preparation assay and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based naked-eye detection method for the rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2. The self-powered sample preparation assay with a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride filter and dimethyl pimelimidate can be operated by hand, without the use of any sophisticated instrumentation, similar to the reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP-based lateral flow assay for the naked-eye detection of SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 molecular diagnostic system enriches the virus population, extracts and amplifies the target RNA, and detects SARS-CoV-2 within 60 min. We validated the accuracy of the system by using 23 clinical nasopharyngeal specimens. We envision that this proposed system will enable simple, facile, efficient, and inexpensive diagnosis of COVID-19 at home and the clinic as a pre-screening platform to reduce the burden on the medical staff in this pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
17.
N Engl J Med ; 385(17): 1629-1630, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442837
18.
Immune Netw ; 21(4): e29, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399492

ABSTRACT

There are limited data directly comparing humoral and T cell responses to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 vaccines. We compared Ab and T cell responses after first doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. BNT162b2 vaccines. We enrolled healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine in Seoul, Korea. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein-specific IgG Abs (S1-IgG), neutralizing Abs (NT Abs), and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response were evaluated before vaccination and at 1-wk intervals for 3 wks after vaccination. A total of 76 persons, comprising 40 injected with the ChAdOx1 vaccine and 36 injected with the BNT162b2 vaccine, participated in this study. At 3 wks after vaccination, the mean levels (±SD) of S1-IgG and NT Abs in the BNT162b2 participants were significantly higher than in the ChAdOx1 participants (S1-IgG, 14.03±7.20 vs. 6.28±8.87, p<0.0001; NT Ab, 183.1±155.6 vs. 116.6±116.2, p=0.035), respectively. However, the mean values of the T cell responses in the 2 groups were comparable after 2 wks. The humoral immune response after the 1st dose of BNT162b2 developed faster and was stronger than after the 1st dose of ChAdOx1. However, the T cell responses to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 were similar.

19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 395-400, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374604

ABSTRACT

Data on the longevity of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited. We evaluated the detailed kinetics of antibody and T-cell responses at the acute, convalescent, and post-convalescent phases in COVID-19 patients with a wide range of severity. We enrolled patients with COVID-19 prospectively from four hospitals and one community treatment center between February 2020 and January 2021. symptom severity was classified as mild, moderate, or severe/critical. Patient blood samples were collected at 1 week (acute), 1 month (convalescent), and 2 months after symptom onset (post-convalescent). Human SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using in-house-developed ELISA. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses against overlapping peptides of spike proteins and nucleoprotein were measured by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Twenty-five COVID-19 patients were analyzed (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 9; severe/critical, n = 11). IgM and IgG antibody responses peaked at 1 month after symptom onset and decreased at 2 months. IgG response levels were significantly greater in the severe/critical group compared with other groups. Interferon-γ-producing T-cell responses increased between 1 week and 1 month after symptom onset, and had a trend toward decreasing at 2 months, but did not show significant differences according to severity. Our data indicate that SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were greater in those with severe symptoms and waned after reaching a peak around 1 month after symptom onset. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different according to symptom severity, and decreased slowly during the post-convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Convalescence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(33): e233, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370979

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
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