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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e289, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematologic malignancies may produce replication-competent virus beyond 20 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients with prolonged viral shedding is limited. METHODS: In May 2022, four additional cases of COVID-19 were reported in a hematologic ward at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea, after an 8-week isolation of a patient with prolonged viral shedding. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the possibility of post-isolation transmission from this prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: A patient (case 1) with acute myeloid leukemia was released from isolation 54 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on rising Ct value of up to 29.3, and moved to a six-patient room. On days 10 and 11 post-isolation, his doctor (case 2) and 2 patients who were his roommates (case 3, 4) had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Additionally, 16 days post-isolation, another patient (case 5) in a remote room had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. All the three patients were hospitalized for ≥ 14 days when they were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Except for case 3, the remaining 4 cases were available for WGS, which revealed that case 1 exhibited a 7 nucleotides difference in comparison to cases 4 and 5 and case 2 displayed a 20 nucleotides difference compared with case 1, while sequences of cases 4 and 5 were identical. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possibility of transmission from the patient with prolonged viral shedding, no evidence of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the patient with prolonged positive RT-PCR using WGS was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding
2.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e11008, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061206

ABSTRACT

Background: Since January 2022, the Omicron variant has become the dominant strain in South Korea, and COVID-19 cases among hospitalized patients and their guardians or caregivers have increased. We evaluated the usefulness of universal periodic screening for SARS-CoV-2 in patients and resident caregivers in a South Korean tertiary care hospital. Methods: We evaluated the reason for testing in COVID-19 confirmed patients and resident caregivers during their hospitalization from March 3 to 31, 2022. The rate of positive PCR universal testing in hospital (or residency) (HD) on days 3 and 7 in asymptomatic patients and caregivers were evaluated. The test for SARS-CoV-2 was done by RT-PCR. Results: During the study period, 677 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The reasons for testing were the symptoms (226 (33%)), pre-admission test (183 (27%)), exposure to COVID-19 (124 (18%)), universal testing on HD 3 (94 (14%)), and that on HD 7 (34 (5%)). Caregivers (n = 340) were tested during their residency due to exposure to COVID-19 cases, 103 (30%); universal testing on HD 3, 90 (26%); symptom development, 46 (14%); pre-stay, 39 (11%); and universal testing on HD 7, 29 (9%). The positive test rates of inpatients and caregivers on HD 3 and HD 7 were as follows: 1.4% (93/6553) and 2.1% (55/2646) in inpatients, and 1.3% (79/5989) and 1.7% (35/2106) in caregivers, respectively. Conclusions: Universal testing, regardless of symptom or epidemiologic link, is useful for detecting pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases among hospitalized patients and caregivers and preventing a nosocomial outbreak during the Omicron era.

4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109297, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sociodemographic factors and chronic conditions associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among persons with substance use disorder (PWSUD) are not well understood. We identified risk factors associated with COVID-19 among PWSUD with hospital visits. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we conducted a case-control study using ICD-10-CM codes to identify PWSUD aged 12 years and older with hospital visits for any reason during April-December 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to identify factors associated with COVID-19 diagnosis among PWSUD (age, sex, race/ethnicity, U.S. Census Region, urban/rural classification, insurance payor type, comorbidities, and substance use disorder [SUD] type), and then stratified by SUD type. RESULTS: From April-December 2020, 18,298 (1.3%) of 1,429,154 persons with SUD in the database had a COVID-19 diagnosis. Among PWSUD, opioid use disorder (OUD; aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.32), alcohol use disorder (AUD; aOR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.11-1.22), cocaine or other stimulant use disorder (COUD; aOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.22-1.34), and multiple SUDs (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.26) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19, as were comorbidities such as chronic lower respiratory disease (aOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.26-1.37), chronic hepatitis (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34-1.57), and diabetes (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.71-1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Among a sample of PWSUD, OUD, AUD, COUD, multiple SUDs, and associated comorbidities were associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. Integration of COVID-related care, care of other comorbidities, and SUD treatment may benefit PWSUD. Future studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 prevention in this population and to reduce disparities among subpopulations at increased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1186-1188, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171488

ABSTRACT

Hand drying is the critical, final step of handwashing. A cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults assessed self-reported hand drying practices in public bathrooms and found increased preference for using electric hand dryers, wiping hands on clothing, and shaking hands and decreased preference for using paper towels during the COVID-19 pandemic relative to before. Respondents expressed concerns about contacting SARS-CoV-2 when touching surfaces in public bathrooms which may be influencing self-reported drying method preference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Toilet Facilities , United States/epidemiology
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