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1.
Health Technol (Berl) ; 12(2): 597-606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881535

ABSTRACT

Co-development of healthcare technology with users helps produce user-friendly products, ensuring safe device usage and meeting patients' needs. For developers considering healthcare innovations, engaging user experience can reduce production time and cost while maximizing device application. The purpose of this paper is to report lessons learned from the development of a 3D printed origami ventilator prototype in response to the rise of ventilator demand due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted focus groups with frontline clinicians working in an Intensive Care Unit of a large urban hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In the interdisciplinary focus groups, we identified challenges, practical tips about product development, the human needs of technology, and cross-discipline peer learning. The focus group discussions provide useful insight into the technology development for complex clinical contexts. Based on our experiences, we articulate five practical tips for co-development of healthcare technology - AGILE: Analyse users' needs first, Gain insights into complex context, Involve users early and frequently, Lead with a prototype, and Educate and support. Through sharing the tips and lessons learned, we wish to emphasize the necessity of meaningful multi-disciplinary collaboration during healthcare technology development and promote the inclusion of frontline clinicians during these initiatives. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12553-022-00655-w.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875640

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can be fatal and consequently, they are a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the development of vaccines and appropriate antiviral therapeutic agents is essential. Depending on the virus, it can cause an acute or a chronic infection. The characteristics of viruses can act as inhibiting factors for the development of appropriate treatment methods. Genome editing technology, including the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a technology that can directly target and modify genomic sequences in almost all eukaryotic cells. The development of this technology has greatly expanded its applicability in life science research and gene therapy development. Research on the use of this technology to develop therapeutics for viral diseases is being conducted for various purposes, such as eliminating latent infections or providing resistance to new infections. In this review, we will look at the current status of the development of viral therapeutic agents using genome editing technology and discuss how this technology can be used as a new treatment approach for viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Virus Diseases , Genome , Humans , Technology , Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/therapy
3.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873580

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Various subtypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and variations among immune systems in different ethnicities need to be considered to understand the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to provide evidence for the association between the use of antidepressants and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We used the National Health Information Data-COVID database. Patients with one or more prescriptions of any antidepressant were selected as the exposure group. Detailed analyses were performed to determine the type of medication associated with the prognosis. RESULTS: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was associated with a lower risk of severe outcomes of COVID-19, whereas the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) increased the risk of poor prognosis of COVID-19. Detailed analyses showed that escitalopram was significantly associated with better clinical outcomes, and nortriptyline was linked to more severe COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study revealed an association between antidepressants and COVID-19 prognosis. SSRIs were significantly associated with a lower risk of severe outcomes, whereas TCAs were related to the poor prognosis of COVID-19.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 884573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865454

ABSTRACT

Background: Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine (TCIM) has been reported to use for symptom management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of this review was to identify the overall usage prevalence of TCIM interventions for COVID-19. Methods: Surveys on the general population and observational studies on the COVID-19 patient chart review were located in the search of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases in September 2021. Observational studies, such as cross-sectional studies, surveys, cohort studies and hospital-based patient case reviews, published in any language, reporting the usage of TCIM in the patients with COVID-19 or the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic were included in this review. Data screening and extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. The reporting quality of the included studies was assessed with the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. To conduct a meta-analysis of the usage prevalence of various TCIM interventions, the effect size of the proportion for each intervention was calculated with the inverse variance method. The main outcome was usage prevalence of TCIM interventions among patients with COVID-19 or the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 62 studies were included in this review. The overall TCIM usage prevalence was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.54-0.73). The overall prevalence did not differ between the population-based survey (0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.81) and the hospital-based patient case review (0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.73). Statistical heterogeneity and comparatively low quality in reporting were observed, which should be cautiously considered when interpreting the results. Conclusion: Various TCIM interventions were reported to be used with comparatively high frequency. Future international collaborative research might overcome the main limitation of this study, i.e., the heterogeneity of the included data. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=278452, identifier: CRD42021278452.

5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(20): e163, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) scoring, medical schools must bring together many clinical experts at the same place, which is very risky in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. However, if the FLEX model with the properties of self-directed learning and offline feedback is applied to OSCE, it is possible to provide a safe and effective evaluation environment for both universities and students through experts' evaluation of self-video clips of medical students. The present study investigated validity of the FLEX model to evaluate OSCE in a small group of medical students. METHODS: Sixteen 3rd grade medical students who failed on OSCE were required to take a make-up examination by videotaping the failed items and submitting them online. The scores between original examination and make-up examination were compared using Paired Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and a post-hoc questionnaire was conducted. RESULTS: The score for make-up examination was significantly higher than those for original examination. The significance was maintained even when the score was compared by individual domains of skills and proficiency. In terms of preference, students were largely in favor of self-videotaped examination primarily due to the availability of self-practice. CONCLUSION: The FLEX model can be effectively applied to medical education, especially for evaluation of OSCE.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Humans , Learning , Pandemics , Schools, Medical
6.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze an outbreak caused by a vaccine breakthrough infection in a hospital with an active infection control program where 91.9% of health care workers were vaccinated. METHODS: We investigated a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak between September 9 and October 2, 2021, in a referral teaching hospital in Korea. We retrospectively collected data on demographics, vaccination history, transmission, and clinical features of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients, health care workers, and caregivers. RESULTS: During the outbreak, 94 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing. There were infections in 61 health care workers, 18 patients, and 15 caregivers; 74.5% (70/94) were vaccine breakthrough infections. Most transmissions appeared to be caused by three index cases, which accounted for 86.2% (81/94) of transmissions. Forty-seven (58.0%, 47/81) cases were associated with the hospital staff cafeteria and offices located in the basement. Among health care workers and caregivers, only one required oxygen supplementation. In contrast, among patients, there were four fatal cases (22.2%, 4/18), 3 of which were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Superspreading infection among fully vaccinated individuals occurred in an acute care hospital while the delta variant was dominant. Given the potential for severe complications, as this outbreak demonstrated, preventive measures including adequate ventilation should be emphasized to minimize transmission in hospitals.

7.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(2): e21, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847577

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, COPD, and ACO on COVID-19. Methods: In total, 5625 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were divided into asthma, COPD, ACO, and control groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality rate. To find out whether chronic obstructive airway diseases such as asthma, COPD, and ACO affect COVID-19 mortality, 1:4 matching was performed, except for the ACO group alone due to a small number of patients. Results: The mortality rates of asthma, COPD, and ACO groups were about 2.3, 4.8, and 5.5 times higher than that of the control group, respectively. Although not statistically significant, the survival probability tended to decrease (asthma, COPD, and combined groups of asthma and ACO, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.84, 1.31, and 1.89, respectively). The survival probability of the combined groups of COPD, ACO, and asthma and the combined groups of COPD and ACO was significantly lower than that of the matched control group (HR: 3.00 and 1.99, respectively). Conclusion: Compared to patients with COVID-19 without chronic obstructive airway disease, patients with these comorbidities are more likely to require oxygen and mechanical ventilators and have a higher mortality rate, which can be considered when classifying and monitoring patients in the era of COVID-19. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of chronic obstructive airway disease, especially ACO, on COVID-19 mortality.

8.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 480(5): 867-869, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840074
9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4941, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837412

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to changes in frequency and amount of alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between changes in alcohol consumption and the risk of both conditions. This study included 96,129 individuals without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus aged ≥ 20 years between 2006 and 2008, with follow-up until 31 December 2015. This study identified 29,043 and 18,784 incident cases of hypertension and type 2 diabetes, respectively, during an average follow-up period of 6.2 ± 2.6 and 6.9 ± 1.9 years. This study measured changes in frequency and amount of alcohol consumption using standardized self-administered questionnaires over approximately 2 years. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the respective risks of the two conditions. Repeated occasional or frequent binge drinking was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR: 1.16 or 1.32;95% CI: 1.11, 1.21 or 1.16, 1.51) and type 2 diabetes (HR: 1.14 or 1.36;95% CI: 1.09, 1.20 or 1.17, 1.58) compared with continuous nondrinking. Reductions as well as increases in frequency of alcohol consumption among binge drinkers were associated with higher hypertension (HR: 1.29 or 1.30;95% CI: 1.11, 1.49 or 1.13, 1.49) and type 2 diabetes (HR: 1.26 or 1.56;95% CI: 1.06, 1.49 or 1.34, 1.81) risk. This study demonstrated that repeated binge drinking, even with a reduction of weekly alcohol consumption frequency, was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

10.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(3): 209-214, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808667

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data are available on comprehensive evaluation of demographics, symptoms or signs, laboratory findings, and disease course in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate whether COPD patients are more prone to severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. We also investigate the clinical characteristics and disease course of COVID-19 in patients with COPD versus those without COPD. Patients were selected from a Korean nationwide cohort of 5,628 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and who had completed treatment or quarantine by April 30, 2020; 3,673 patients aged 40 years or older were included in this study. COPD was diagnosed using patient reports of physician-diagnosed COPD. During the study period, all patients with COVID-19 in Korea were hospitalized following the national health policy. Of the study participants, 38 (1.0%) had COPD. Regarding initial symptoms, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed greater sputum production (50.0% vs. 29.8%, p < 0.01) and dyspnea (36.8% vs. 14.9%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. In addition, patients with COPD were more likely to receive oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilation (29.0% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.01) and had a higher mortality (21.1% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidities, COPD patients showed increased risk of severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. Our nationwide study showed that COVID-19 patients with COPD have higher symptomatic burden and more severe disease course than those without COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
RSC advances ; 12(10):6093-6098, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787361

ABSTRACT

Copper alloys are known for their high antimicrobial efficacy. Retrofitting high-touch surfaces in public space with solid copper components is expensive and often impractical. Directly coating copper onto these high-touch surfaces can be achieved with hot or cold spray, but the procedure is complicated and requires special equipment. This article reports on the development of sprayable copper and copper–zinc nanowire inks for antiviral surface coating applications. Our results show that copper nanowires inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus faster than bulk copper. And a trace amount of zinc addition has a significant effect in enhancing the virucidal effect. More importantly, these nanowire inks are sprayable. They can be easily applied on high-touch surfaces with a spray can. When combined with common chemical disinfectants, the copper-based nanowire ink spray may prolong the disinfecting effect well after application. SEM and TEM images of copper and copper–zinc nanowires that are sprayable for antiviral surface coating.

12.
International journal of environmental research and public health ; 19(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781500

ABSTRACT

Background: The introduction of new vaccines has been delayed in some countries in the Asia-Pacific region, which has led to delays in accessing vaccines for target patients. However, the approval lag of vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region has not been assessed. The objective of this study is to assess the availability and approval lag of vaccines in Asia-Pacific countries and compare them among Asia-Pacific countries, the United States (US), and Europe (EU). Methods: The information on vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) between 2010 and 2019 was obtained primarily from the WHO website. The date of approval of the WHO prequalified vaccine in Australia, India, South Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, the US, and EU was retrieved from the official website of national regulatory agencies. The vaccines were divided into two groups based on their first approval pathway, that is, vaccines that were first approved by SRA (Stringent Regulatory Authority including the US, EU, and WHO) and those that were first approved by non-SRA. The absolute approval lag represented the availability of the vaccine. Relative approval lag represented the lag time between the approval date of the country of interest and the first global approval date and was measured as the median approval lag. A Mann–Whitney U test was used to examine statistical differences between relative approval lag between the SRA first and the non-SRA first groups. Results: A total of 92 vaccines were prequalified by the WHO between 2010 and 2019, but only 61 vaccines were included in the analysis. Over 50% of vaccines were first licensed by non-SRAs. Of all the WHO-prequalified vaccines, the median approval lag in the ASEAN countries in this study was longer than those in the US and EU, with a median of 30 months in Australia, 15 months in South Korea, 52 months in Thailand, and 23 months in Singapore, compared to 0 months in the US and EU. The differences in approval lags between SRA first vaccines and non-SRA first vaccines were statistically significant in South Korea and Thailand (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The approval lag of vaccines was observed in the Asia-Pacific region, indicating a gap between the Asia-pacific region and the US and EU in regard to access to new vaccines. Future studies need to analyze the background factors related to the gap in availability and vaccine approval lag in the Asia-Pacific region and assess the impact of vaccine approval lag in the region.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 836288, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785322

ABSTRACT

Background: Here we aimed to analyze changes in the outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (AFCA) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and examine the relationship between rhythm outcomes and the stringency of government social distancing measures. Methods: We included 453 patients who underwent de novo AFCA between May 2018 and October 2019 (pre-COVID-19 era) and 601 between November 2019 and April 2021 (COVID-19 era). The primary outcome was late recurrence, defined as any episode of AF or atrial tachycardia documented after a 3-month blanking period. A multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative hazards of AF recurrence in the two eras. Results: In the study population (24.3% women; median age, 60 years), 660 (62.6%) patients had paroxysmal AF. Among those with paroxysmal AF, the late recurrence rate was significantly lower in the COVID-19 era than in the pre-COVID-19 era [9.4% vs. 17.0%, respectively, log-rank P = 0.004; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.90] during a median follow-up of 11 months. In patients with persistent AF, the late recurrence rate did not significantly differ between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 era groups (18.9% vs. 21.5%, respectively; log-rank P = 0.523; adjusted HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.47-1.53) during the median follow-up of 11 months. Conclusion: A decrease in AF recurrence after catheter ablation was observed in patients with paroxysmal AF during the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas no change was observed in those with persistent AF.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 820643, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776015

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer is one of the leading chronic diseases, which causes premature mortality in Korea. Early detection has been reported to be associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Consistent evidence reports that lower screening rates are associated with socioeconomic-based disparities. This study aimed to examine income-related disparities in cancer screening services and to analyze the association between utilization of cancer screening and individual characteristics, including income levels. Methods: This study utilized the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based survey from 2013 to 2019. The study population included individuals aged 40 years or over. The variables were socioeconomic characteristics and perceived health status. Household income was categorized into quartiles from Q1 (the lowest income group) to Q4 (the highest income group). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between cancer screening and individual characteristics and household income levels. Results: There were 20,347 individuals included in this study. Among these, 14,741 (72.4%) had undergone cancer screening. There existed a gap in the utilization of cancer screening between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) income quintiles owing to evident income disparities; Q4 thus had a significantly higher likelihood of undergoing cancer screening than other quintiles. Female sex, university and over education, number of chronic diseases, and private insurance coverage were positively associated with cancer screening (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that policymakers should develop and design strategies to increase awareness and efforts to improve the education and promotion of cancer screening among lower-income target groups.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer , Healthcare Disparities , Income , Neoplasms , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate associated predictors and outcomes. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2020 across 38 Michigan hospitals, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfections. In-hospital and 60-day mortality, readmission, discharge to long-term care facility (LTCF), and mechanical ventilation duration were assessed for patients with versus without coinfection. RESULTS: Of 2,205 patients with COVID-19, 141 (6.4%) had a coinfection: 3.0% community onset and 3.4% hospital acquired. Of patients without coinfection, 64.9% received antibiotics. Community-onset coinfection predictors included admission from an LTCF (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 2.34-6.76; P < .001) and admission to intensive care (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.87-6.55; P < .001). Hospital-acquired coinfection predictors included fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15-5.27; P = .02) and advanced respiratory support (OR, 40.72; 95% CI, 13.49-122.93; P < .001). Patients with (vs without) community-onset coinfection had longer mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.67-6.56; P = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06-3.40; P = .03) and 60-day mortality (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05-3.29; P = .03). Patients with (vs without) hospital-acquired coinfection had higher discharge to LTCF (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 3.30-21.76; P < .001), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.37-7.33; P ≤ .001), and 60-day mortality (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.11-6.33; P ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: Despite community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection being uncommon, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 received antibiotics. Admission from LTCF and to ICU were associated with increased risk of community-onset coinfection. Future studies should prospectively validate predictors of COVID-19 coinfection to facilitate the reduction of antibiotic use.

16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760371

ABSTRACT

The advancement of science and technology has led to the recent development of highly sensitive pathogen biosensing techniques. The effective treatment of pathogen infections requires sensing technologies to not only be sensitive but also render results in real-time. This review thus summarises the recent advances in optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor technology, which possesses the aforementioned advantages. Specifically, this technology allows for the detection of specific pathogens by applying nano-sized materials. This review focuses on various nanomaterials that are used to ensure the performance and high selectivity of SPR sensors. This review will undoubtedly accelerate the development of optical biosensing technology, thus allowing for real-time diagnosis and the timely delivery of appropriate treatments as well as preventing the spread of highly contagious pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanostructures , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
17.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742556

ABSTRACT

Nafamostat, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as pancreatitis. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the promising antiviral effects of nafamostat for the treatment of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This study aimed to develop a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis and to characterize the pharmacokinetics of nafamostat in rats. Nafamostat in the rat plasma was extracted by solid phase extraction, and 13C6-nafamostat was used as an internal standard. The quantification limit of nafamostat in the rat plasma was 0.5 ng/mL. The LC-MS/MS method was fully validated and applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics of nafamostat in rats. Following intravenous injection (2 mg/kg), nafamostat in the plasma showed a multiexponential decline with an average elimination half-life (t1/2) of 1.39 h. Following oral administration of nafamostat solutions (20 mg/kg) in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and in 10% DMSO with 10% Tween 80, nafamostat was rapidly absorbed, and the average oral bioavailability was 0.95% and 1.59%, respectively. The LC-MS/MS method and the pharmacokinetic information of nafamostat could be helpful for the further preclinical and clinical studies of nafamostat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Animals , Benzamidines , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Guanidines , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e75, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742199

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. VITT strongly mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and shares clinical features. Heparin is commonly used to prevent coagulation during hemodialysis. Therefore, nephrologists might encounter patients needing dialysis with a history of heparin exposure who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenia after vaccination. A 70-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury and altered mental status due to lithium intoxication. He needed consecutive hemodialysis using heparin. Deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity and accompanying severe thrombocytopenia of 15,000/µL on 24 days after vaccination and at the same time, nine days after heparin use. Anti-platelet factor 4 antibody test was positive. Anticoagulation with apixaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion resolved swelling of his left calf and thrombocytopenia. There were no definitive diagnostic tools capable of differentiating between VITT and HIT in this patient. Although VITT and HIT share treatment with IVIG and non-heparin anticoagulation, distinguishing between VITT and HIT will make it possible to establish a follow-up vaccination plan in a person who has had a thrombocytopenic thrombotic event. Further research is needed to develop the tools to make a clear distinction between the clinical syndromes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lithium/toxicity , Male , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/methods , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
19.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329805

ABSTRACT

We estimated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG in different island groups in Okinawa and described its changes over time. A cross-sectional sero-survey was repeated in three distinct periods between July 2020 and February 2021. A total of 2683 serum samples were collected from six referral medical centers, each covering a separate region in Okinawa. Patients who visited the emergency department for any reason and underwent blood collection were eligible for the study. Samples were analyzed using an FDA-authorized two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. The case detection ratio was computed by dividing the seroprevalence by the attack rate obtained from publicly available surveillance data. In the main island, the seroprevalence was 0.0% (0/392, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9), 0.6% (8/1448, 0.2-1.1), and 1.4% (8/582, 0.6-2.7) at the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd sero-survey, respectively. In the remote islands, the seroprevalence was 0.0% (0/144, 95% CI: 0.0-2.5) and 1.6% (2/123, 0.2-5.8) at the 2 nd and 3 rd survey, respectively. The overall case detection ratios at the 3 rd survey were 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-5.3) in the main island and 2.8 (0.7-11.1) in the remote islands. The highest age-specific case detection ratio was observed in people aged 20-29 years (8.3, 95% CI: 3.3-21.4) in the main island and in those aged 50-59 years (14.1, 2.1-92.7) in the remote islands. The low seroprevalence at the latest survey suggested that a large-scale epidemic had not yet occurred in Okinawa by February 2021. The case detection ratios imply that the cumulative number of incident cases in Okinawa should be 2-3 times higher than that reported by routine surveillance. The ratio was particularly high in young people probably due to a frequent asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 disease in this age group. To accurately measure the scale of the COVID-19 epidemic, it is crucially important to conduct a sero-survey targeting the young.

20.
Health and Technology ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738256

ABSTRACT

Co-development of healthcare technology with users helps produce user-friendly products, ensuring safe device usage and meeting patients’ needs. For developers considering healthcare innovations, engaging user experience can reduce production time and cost while maximizing device application. The purpose of this paper is to report lessons learned from the development of a 3D printed origami ventilator prototype in response to the rise of ventilator demand due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted focus groups with frontline clinicians working in an Intensive Care Unit of a large urban hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In the interdisciplinary focus groups, we identified challenges, practical tips about product development, the human needs of technology, and cross-discipline peer learning. The focus group discussions provide useful insight into the technology development for complex clinical contexts. Based on our experiences, we articulate five practical tips for co-development of healthcare technology - AGILE: Analyse users’ needs first, Gain insights into complex context, Involve users early and frequently, Lead with a prototype, and Educate and support. Through sharing the tips and lessons learned, we wish to emphasize the necessity of meaningful multi-disciplinary collaboration during healthcare technology development and promote the inclusion of frontline clinicians during these initiatives. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12553-022-00655-w.

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