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1.
49th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ISCA 2022 ; : 656-669, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932798

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose BioHD, a novel genomic sequence searching platform based on Hyper-Dimensional Computing (HDC) for hardware-friendly computation. BioHD transforms inherent sequential processes of genome matching to highly-parallelizable computation tasks. We exploit HDC memorization to encode and represent the genome sequences using high-dimensional vectors. Then, it combines the genome sequences to generate an HDC reference library. During the sequence searching, BioHD performs exact or approximate similarity check of an encoded query with the HDC reference library. Our framework simplifes the required sequence matching operations while introducing a statistical model to control the alignment quality. To get actual advantage from BioHD inherent robustness and parallelism, we design a processing in-memory (PIM) architecture with massive parallelism and compatible with the existing crossbar memory. Our PIM architecture supports all essential BioHD operations natively in memory with minimal modifcation on the array. We evaluate BioHD accuracy and efciency on a wide range of genomics data, including COVID-19 databases. Our results indicate that PIM provides 102.8× and 116.1× (9.3× and 13.2×) speedup and energy efciency compared to the state-of-theart pattern matching algorithm running on GeForce RTX 3060 Ti GPU (state-of-the-art PIM accelerator). © 2022 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.

2.
Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing ; 39(3):335-352, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1931662

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is substantially reshaping the tourism and hospitality industries but studies on the changes in travel behaviour in response to the pandemic are limited. Using tourism big data, this research applies network science analytics to determine behavioural changes in travel mobility of domestic travellers who visited Jeju Island, Korea, from June 2019 to December 2020. The findings reveal significant reductions in the number of trips to a destination but also limited spatial connectivity and diversity in travel flow during the pandemic. A higher intensity of travel mobility to outdoor and coastal areas and shorter travel distances are evident during COVID-19. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

3.
Economics Bulletin ; 42(1):208-214, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1929362

ABSTRACT

Using unique mobile App usage data in South Korea during and after the major pandemic, we examined private investment behaviors to enhance understanding of the disproportionate impacts of Covid-19 by income level. Our empirical analysis showed that, as the pandemic progressed, those with higher incomes increased usage of bitcoin trading Apps, but those with lower incomes augmented employment of stock trading Apps. Study implications are valuable for trading agencies in implementation of digital strategies for private and retail investors © 2022. Economics Bulletin.All Rights Reserved.

4.
Social Sciences-Basel ; 11(6):15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928632

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has left international cooperation and liberalistic values in crisis. As liberalism's downfall is widely discussed, international collaborations like the European Union are criticised for their inability to operate adequately during the pandemic. The four examples in this paper are middle power countries (South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore) in terms of economic scale and influence. The purpose of this study was to uncover possibilities for and limitations of these middle powers within international cooperative efforts during and after the pandemic. The unknown factor is the path the post-pandemic world will follow. Will nations focus on independent survival? Or will international cooperation shape the new world? Globalisation already seems to have progressed too far for the national egoism of the great powers to prevail. Even if face-to-face is replaced by virtual and offline meetings move online, the social nature of humans remains unchanged, and international cooperation remains valid. The four middle power countries in Asia, which are included among the most economically successful countries, are important to international society based on their relatively excellent quarantine performance. What is important in the diplomacy of middle power countries is not traditional security and hard power but the soft power of international law, human rights, health security, and international cooperation.

5.
Advanced Functional Materials ; : 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1925858

ABSTRACT

Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), the basic building blocks of integrated circuits, are deployed to control switching applications and logic operations. However, as the thickness of a conventional BJT device approaches a few atoms, its performance decreases substantially. The stacking of atomically thin 2D semiconductor materials is advantageous for manufacturing atomically thin BJT devices owing to the high carrier density of electrons and holes. Here, an atomically thin n-p-n BJT device composed of heavily doped molybdenum ditelluride (n-MoTe2) and germanium selenide (p-GeSe) sheets stacked over each other by van der Waals interactions is reported. In a common-emitter configuration, MoTe2/GeSe/MoTe2 BJT devices exhibit a considerably high current gain (beta = I-c /I-b = 29.3) at V-be = 2.5 V. The MoTe2/GeSe/MoTe2 BJT device is employed to detect streptavidin biomolecules as analytes within m. Such vdW BJT devices can trigger the development of state-of-the-art electronic devices that can be used as biosensors to detect the various kinds of target DNA and proteins like spike protein of Covid-19.

6.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925587

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our objective was to determine whether AD increases COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR). Background: Previous studies have identified dementia as a risk factor for death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality. Design/Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 387,841 COVID-19 patientes through TriNetX, and performed a multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds ratio of dying from COVID-19 between patients with and without AD. We accounted for differences between cohorts in three ways. First, we included age, gender, race, ethnicity, and 30 comorbidities from the Elixhauser comorbidity index in our regression. Second, we matched each AD COVID-19 case to control COVID-19 cases with the same age, gender, race, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, and then performed conditional logistic regression to account for residual confounding. Third, we performed propensity score matching followed by conditional logistic regression. We extended this analysis to vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Results: We found that AD patients had higher odds of dying from COVID-19 compared to patients without AD (Odds Ratio(OR): 1.20, 95% confidence interval(CI): 1.09-1.32, p<0.001). This result is corroborated by conditional logistic regression analyses with exact-matching and propensity score matching. Interestingly, we did not observe increased mortality from COVID-19 among patients with vascular dementia (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.88-1.10, p=0.83), DLB or FTD. Conclusions: AD increases CFR associated with COVID-19, though vascular dementia does not. These data are relevant to the evolving global COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics.

7.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925322

ABSTRACT

Objective: Increased data about potential adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination will contribute to a better-informed evaluation of the safety of the vaccines. Here, we describe a case of sensory predominant Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) following administration of PfizerBioNTech vaccine in a 16-year-old female. Background: Over 3.58 billion people worldwide have received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. The concerns for GBS first arose with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca). More than 200 cases associated with the vaccine have been reported. Recently, Janssen/Johnson&Johnson vaccine was also reported to have a small but statistically significant increase in risk for GBS with an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100,000 person-years in adults. Thus far, no studies have shown an association between Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and GBS. Design/Methods: N/A Results: A previously healthy and athletic 16-year-old female presented to the emergency department with 3 weeks of ascending numbness and paresthesia of her bilateral lower and upper extremities. She received her second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine 2 days prior to symptom onset. On neurological examination, she had intact strength, absent reflexes, decreased sensation to pinprick, diminished vibratory sensation, and mild ataxia on toe and tandem walking. MRI study showed mild thickening and enhancement of the anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots of the cauda equina, consistent with GBS. With lumbar puncture, albuminocytologic dissociation was seen in CSF. Conclusions: Our patient presented with clinical signs, imaging, and lab findings most consistent with the diagnosis of GBS. Idiopathic or asymptomatic infectious causes of GBS cannot be completely ruled out;however, with the recent vaccination and absence of any other clinical signs or lab findings, the vaccine is most likely to be the trigger for our patient. To date, this is the first case reported of GBS in a pediatric patient after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.

8.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925320

ABSTRACT

Objective: We evaluated clinical outcomes of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with COVID-19 infection to determine factors associated with poor outcomes. Background: MG is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. MG patients often manifest dyspnea and dysphagia and have an increased risk of infection due to immunosuppressants use, which may compound the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. A comprehensive understanding of clinical outcomes of MG-COVID patients is crucial in clinical decision making. Design/Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Optum® de-identified COVID-19 Electronic Health Record (EHR) data. Primary outcomes include death, hospitalization, intubation, and ICU stay. We analyzed factors that may affect the outcomes such as age, sex, ethnicity, geographic region, month of COVID-19 diagnosis, comorbidities, and MG-specific treatments. Then, we compared these outcomes with non-MG COVID as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) with COVID-19 using a modified multivariable Poisson regression model. Results: Our study includes total of 421,086 individuals with COVID-19 among which 377 were MG-COVID. MG was not associated with increased risk of ventilator use or death but was associated with increased risk of hospitalization (aRR=1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.46, p <0.001) and ICU stay (aRR=1.51, 95% CI 1.16-1.96, p=0.002) when accounting for the covariates in COVID-19. The mortality of the MG-COVID subgroup was 10%, and it was associated with age 75 or older (aRR=9.57, 95% CI 1.56-58.76, p=0.015) and presence of dysphagia (aRR=1.84, 95% CI 1.06- 3.21, p=0.031) but not immunosuppressants use. The MG-COVID had higher adjusted risks of hospitalization and ICU admission compared to the RA-COVID but similar to the SLE- and MS-COVID subgroups. Conclusions: Our study provides insight into how COVID-19 infection affected MG patients. Neurologists may consider these outcomes when providing MG with COVID-19 patients and their families with treatment options, vaccination counseling, and prognosis.

9.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925309

ABSTRACT

Objective: We are investigating whether COVID-19 infection increases the propensity of developing Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) or affects the clinical outcome of GBS. Background: During the pandemic, there have been many case reports and case series of GBS following COVID-19 infection. The causality of COVID-19 in these cases is not clear. There are conflicting reports regarding the incidence of GBS during the pandemic. In prior literature, clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of GBS in COVID-19 associated cases did not differ from the previously described natural history. Design/Methods: Longitudinal electronic health record database for Optum, which included more than 4.4 million patients who underwent testing for COVID-19, was queried in May 2021 for ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for GBS. Clinical information based on billing codes was acquired. GBS cases within 60 days of the first positive PCR test for COVID-19 were further analyzed. We also evaluated the presence of GBS in patients who tested negative for COVID 19 during the same time frame. Results: There were 725,347 patients in the database with COVID-19 diagnosis. We analyzed 844 patients with GBS, 86 of which occurred within 60 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. The incidence of GBS was not increased among the patients with recent COVID 19 diagnosis, compared to the GBS cases without COVID 19 in the same time frame. In our preliminary analysis, COVID-19 associated cases had higher mortality, intubation rates, and need for posthospital rehabilitation at a facility. Conclusions: Our preliminary analysis of this large database did not show any evidence that COVID-19 increases the propensity for developing GBS. However, when associated with COVID-19 infection, the outcomes for GBS seem to be worse. Further ongoing analyses considering covariates of age, comorbidities, and month of COVID-19 diagnosis is planned.

10.
ANNALS OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE ; 34, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912707

ABSTRACT

Background: Although coronavirus disease 2019 is causing a variety of psychological problems for workers, there are few longitudinal studies on changes in workers' mental health by workplace intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the change in the prevalence of depression and anxiety according to the active involvement of the workplace. Methods: This study was conducted on 1,978 workers at a workplace who underwent a health screening from January 2019 to August 2020, and classified depression and anxiety disorders using a self-report questionnaire. After the first pandemic, the company stopped health screening, took paid leave and telecommuting, and conducted interventions such as operating its own screening clinic. To see if this workplace intervention affects workers' mental health, we conducted generalized estimating equations to compare odds ratio (OR). Results: In the pre-intervention group, 384 people (16.86%) had depression, and 507 people (22.26%) had anxiety disorder. Based on the OR before intervention, the OR of depression decreased to 0.76 (0.66-0.87) and the OR of anxiety disorder decreased to 0.73 (0.65-0.82). Conclusions: As a result of this study, it was confirmed that workplace intervention was related to a decrease in depression and anxiety. This study provides basic data to improve workers' mental health according to workplace intervention, and further research is needed according to workplace intervention in the future.

11.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880806
12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880452
13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880098
14.
Journal of Global Business and Trade ; 18(2):1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876315

ABSTRACT

Purpose – The construct of social crowdedness has been debated whether it impacts consumer shopping satisfaction positively or negatively. However, as the COVID-19 has prolonged, people fear places full of people due to possible contamination and so they avoid such areas. Therefore, this study expects that social crowded-ness has a negative effect. However, this study also predicts that consumers’ individual values could moderate the negative effect of social crowdedness. Design/Methodology/Approach – This study recruited an experimental study design for the research purpose above. Through two experiments, this study examined the effect of social crowdedness on shopping satisfaction and the moderating effect of happiness perspective (study 1) and time perspective (study 2). Findings – The study found that people in a high social crowdedness condition showed lower shopping satis-faction. Furthermore, this negative reaction in a high social crowdedness condition was moderated depending on their dominant perspective. Research Implications – Those with calm happiness and present-fatalistic perspective showed even greater shopping satisfaction in low social crowdedness conditions. In contrast, those with exciting happiness and present-hedonic time perspectives showed comparably higher satisfaction in a high crowdedness condition. The results are expected to provide critical strategic implications to retail managers. © 2022 International Academy of Global Business and Trade. All rights reserved.

15.
37th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2022 ; : 1771-1778, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874700

ABSTRACT

The social confusion caused by the recent pandemic of COVID-19 has been further facilitated by fake news diffused via social media on the Internet. For this reason, many studies have been proposed to detect fake news as early as possible. The content-based detection methods consider the difference between the contents of true and fake news articles. However, they suffer from the two serious limitations: (1) the publisher can manipulate the content of a news article easily, and (2) the content depends upon the language, with which the article is written. To overcome these limitations, the diffusion-based fake news detection methods have been proposed. The diffusion-based methods consider the difference among the diffusion patterns of true and fake news articles on social media. Despite its success, however, the lack of the diffusion information regarding to the COVID-19 related fake news prevents from studying the diffusion-based fake news detection methods. Therefore, for overcoming the limitation, we propose a diffusion-based fake news detection framework (D-FEND), which consists of four components: (C1) diffusion data collection, (C2) analysis of the data and feature extraction, (C3) model training, and (C4) inference. Our work contributes to the effort to mitigate the risk of infodemics during a pandemic by (1) building a new diffusion dataset, named CoAID+, (2) identifying and addressing the class imbalance problem of CoAID+, and (3) demonstrating that D-FEND successfully detects fake news articles with 88.89% model accuracy on average. © 2022 ACM.

16.
Frontiers in Marine Science ; 9:13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869379

ABSTRACT

Unprecedented retardation of spring water temperature rising during the 2020 pandemic year was identified in the Socheongcho Ocean Research Station within the northeastern basin of the Yellow Sea: an exceptionally high water temperature anomaly in March and a contrasted low-temperature anomaly in May. The slowest temperature evolution was principally caused by the significant increase in latent heat releases in April (117% higher than the climatology of 1982-2019). Strong northwesterly winds generated these exceptional heat fluxes associated with the dipole-like atmospheric circulation pattern over Siberia and the East Sea (Japan Sea). Besides, warm winter water facilitated the enhanced release of latent heat fluxes as a precondition. The oceanic heat redistribution partially supported the cold anomaly in the surface layer up to the middle of May through positive feedback between the low surface temperature and the active entrainment associated with tidal turbulent mixing. The resultant low temperature at the surface weakened the vertical stratification, both impeding the activation of phytoplankton's photosynthesis albeit under the eutrophic surface layer, consequently resulting in the delayed and suppressed spring bloom during 2020. Since such extreme events are anticipated to occur more frequently under global warming, our results highlight the importance of continuously monitoring multi-disciplinary environmental conditions, climate extremes, and their impact on the Yellow Sea marine ecosystem.

17.
12th International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC) - Beyond the Pandemic Era with ICT Convergence Innovation ; : 1513-1515, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853454

ABSTRACT

Epidemic estimation models are commonly based on SIR or SEIR model. SIR and SEIR can explain the past data but it is not easy to provide information about detail effects such as isolation, vaccination and etc. When the prediction can provide the effect of single quarantine policy, government can decide more easily about isolation, mask wearing, vaccination and other quarantine policy. Thus, in this study, microscopic simulation program was developed to apply and understand the effect of single policy. The simulation was performed by changing social distancing factor that widely accepted as a quarantine policy all over the world. This factor showed remarkable impact when they are properly operated. By changing social distancing factor m from 0 to 20 for each 5 steps, (0, 5 10, 15, 20) the final numbers of infection were 77508, 33927, 14942, 6523 and 7937, respectively. The simulator showed the capability to successfully demonstrate the two single policy effect.

18.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2101-2101, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848849
19.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336024

ABSTRACT

Background: Continued SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospitalizations highlight the need for effective anti-viral treatments in the outpatient setting. In a descriptive interim analysis of the phase 1/2 portion of a double-blind phase 1/2/3 trial in COVID-19 outpatients conducted between June 16, 2020 and September 4, 2020, REGEN-COV® (casirivimab plus imdevimab) antibody combination reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load versus placebo. Methods: This final phase 1/2 analysis comprises 799 outpatients, including 275 from the previous descriptive analysis (group-1) and 524 from phase 2 (group-2). Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to placebo, REGEN-COV 2400mg, or REGEN-COV 8000mg. Prespecified hierarchical analyses of virologic endpoints were performed in group-2. The proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related medically attended visit (MAV) through day 29 was assessed in group-1+2. Efficacy was assessed in patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive by baseline nasopharyngeal RT-qPCR. Safety was assessed in all treated patients. Results: Data from 799 outpatients enrolled from June 16, 2020 to September 23, 2020 are reported. Time-weighted average daily reduction in viral load through day 7 was significantly greater in the REGEN-COV combined 2400mg+8000mg group versus placebo in patients with baseline viral load >107 copies/mL (prespecified primary endpoint): -0.68 log10 copies/ml (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.41;P<.0001). This reduction was - 0.73 (P<.0001) and -0.36 (P=.0003) log10 copies/mL in serum antibody-negative patients and in the overall population, respectively. REGEN-COV reduced the proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related MAV versus placebo (2.8% [12/434] REGEN-COV combined dose group versus 6.5% [15/231] placebo;P=.024;relative risk reduction [RRR]=57%);in patients with ≥1 risk factor for hospitalization, the treatment effect was more pronounced (RRR=71%). Adverse events were similar across groups. Conclusions: In COVID-19 outpatients enrolled prior to the widespread circulation of delta and omicron variants, treatment with REGEN-COV significantly reduced viral load and COVID-19-related MAVs.

20.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters ; 50(1):95-101, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819165

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by COVID-19, the demand for face masks is soaring and has often caused a shortage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) and drying treatments on microbial contaminants in facial masks. To conduct this study, standard procedures were designed to develop samples contaminated by the control bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination level of the standard samples was approximately 6.30 × 106 CFU/ml, and the UV light treatment was performed 1, 3, 5, and 7 times. To evaluate the effect of the UV and drying treatments, the masks were first treated with UV 1, 2, and 3 times, followed by the drying process. As a result, the mask contaminated with E. coli and P. aeruginosa showed a bacterial rate of approximately 99.9% after 1 UV irradiation, and in the case of the S. aureus-contaminated mask, it exhibited a bactericidal rate of approximately 99.9% after 7 UV irradiations. However, when the drying process was included after UV irradiation, all the samples contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa showed a bactericidal rate of 99.9% or more. The results of this study suggest that UV and drying treatments can effectively reduce the bacterial contaminants in facial masks. In addition, these results provide fundamental data and appropriate sterilization methods for reusing masks.

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