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Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533814


Lung cancer organoid (LCO) is a novel model of lung cancer that facilitates drug screening. However, the success rate of LCOs varies from 7% to 87%, and the culture medium compositions are markedly different. Airway organoid media can be used for LCO cultures, but this promotes the overgrowth of normal cell organoids especially in LCOs from intrapulmonary lesions. Several modified media are specifically utilized for promoting the cancer cell's growth. For culturing high-purity LCOs, cancer cells from metastatic lesions and malignant effusions are used. Recently, single-cell RNA sequencing has identified previously unknown cell populations in the lungs and lung cancer. This sequencing technology can be used to validate whether the LCO recapitulates the heterogeneity and functional hierarchy of the primary tumor. Several groups have attempted to culture LCOs with mesenchymal cells and immune cells to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment. Disease modeling using LCO provides novel insight into the pathophysiology of lung cancer and enables high-throughput screening for drug discovery and prognosis prediction. An LCO model would help to identify new concepts as a basis for lung cancer targeting by discovering innovative therapeutic targets.

Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Organoids/pathology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Microenvironment
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367801


Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays against the spike (S) protein are useful for monitoring immune response after infection or vaccination. We compared the results of three chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) (Abbott, Roche, Siemens) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript) using 191 sequential samples from 32 COVID-19 patients. All assays detected >90% of samples collected 14 days after symptom onset (Abbott 97.4%, Roche 96.2%, Siemens 92.3%, and GenScript 96.2%), and overall agreement among the four assays was 91.1% to 96.3%. When we assessed time-course antibody levels, the Abbott and Siemens assays showed higher levels in patients with severe disease (p < 0.05). Antibody levels from the three CLIAs were correlated (r = 0.763-0.885). However, Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed significant proportional differences between assays and converting results to binding antibody units (BAU)/mL still showed substantial bias. CLIAs had good performance in predicting sVNT positivity (Area Under the Curve (AUC), 0.959-0.987), with Abbott having the highest AUC value (p < 0.05). SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibody levels as assessed by the CLIAs were not interchangeable, but showed reliable performance for predicting sVNT results. Further standardization and harmonization of immunoassays might be helpful in monitoring immune status after COVID-19 infection or vaccination.

Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282444


Despite significant innovations in lung cancer treatment, such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy, lung cancer is still the principal cause of cancer-associated death. Novel strategies to overcome drug resistance and inhibit metastasis in cancer are urgently needed. The Hippo pathway and its effector, Yes-associated protein (YAP), play crucial roles in lung development and alveolar differentiation. YAP is known to mediate mechanotransduction, an important process in lung homeostasis and fibrosis. In lung cancer, YAP promotes metastasis and confers resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs and targeted agents. Recent studies revealed that YAP directly controls the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and modulates the tumor microenvironment (TME). YAP not only has a profound relationship with autophagy in lung cancer but also controls alveolar differentiation, and is responsible for tubular structure formation in lung organoids. In this review, we discuss the various roles and clinical implications of YAP in lung cancer and propose that targeting YAP can be a promising strategy for treating lung cancer.