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2.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(4): 851-863, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The risk factors and clinical impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remain controversial, and no data have been reported in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and importance of CAPA diagnostic efforts and to identify the predictors of CAPA and the impacts on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Between January 2020 and May 2021, data of severely to critically ill COVID-19 patients were extracted from seven hospitals of the Catholic Medical Center through a clinical data warehouse. Corticosteroid use was subcategorized into total cumulative dose, early 7-day dose, mean daily dose, and duration of use. RESULTS: A total of 2,427 patients were screened, and 218 patients were included. CAPA was diagnosed in 4.6% (10/218) of all hospitalized and 11.2% (10/89) of intensive care unit patients. Total cumulative dose (over 1,000 mg as methylprednisolone) and daily high-dose corticosteroid use (over 60 mg/day) were independent predictors but not early 7-day high-dose corticosteroid use (over 420 mg/week) (odds ratio [OR], 1.731; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.350 to 8.571) nor prolonged use (OR, 2.794; 95% CI, 0.635 to 13.928). In-hospital overall mortality was 11.9% (26 of 218). CAPA itself did not affect the outcome; rather, daily high-dose steroid use significantly increased the 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 5.645; 95% CI, 1.225 to 26.091). CONCLUSION: CAPA was not uncommon, especially in critically ill patients. Daily high-dose corticosteroid use was the predictor of CAPA and associated with high mortality rates. High-dose corticosteroids use after early inflammatory phase should be avoided, and active surveillance methods for CAPA are essential for those high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Clin Lab ; 68(5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serology testing is useful to determine the past infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We evaluated the comparative performance of a newly developed neutralizing antibody test (R-FIND SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA, SG Medical, Seoul, Korea) and a rapid fluorescence immunoassay (FREND™ COVID-19 SP, NanoEntek, Hwaseong, Korea) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody. They were compared with cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (Genscript Biotech, Piscataway, NJ, USA) and ADVIA Centaur SARS-CoV-2 Total (COV2T) (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany). Forty COVID-19 samples and 80 negative samples were collected after nucleic acid tests. RESULTS: The positive percent agreement (%) of the kit in samples from 6 - 7 days, 8 - 14 days, and 15 - 45 days after symptom onset were as follows: R-FIND (83.3, 76.9, 95.2), cPass (83.3, 69.2, 90.5), FREND (66.6, 84.6, 100), and COV2T (66.6, 69.2, 76.2). The negative percent agreement (%) was 100, 97.5, 92.5, and 100 for R-FIND, cPass, FREND, and COV2T. The total agreement rate between the neutralizing antibody kits (R-FIND and cPass) was 96.7%. FREND showed high agreement with two neutralizing antibody kits (96.7% for R-FIND and 93.3% for cPass). CONCLUSIONS: R-FIND Neutralizing Antibody and FREND COVID-19 SP showed comparable detecting ability to commercial tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 360-364, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693248

ABSTRACT

Adverse events following vaccination with the ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine may be associated with the titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 82 HCWs who received the ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine and did not have previous COVID-19 history were enrolled during March 2021. Blood samples were collected from HCWs 3 weeks after the first and second doses of vaccine, and NAbs were estimated using two types of commercially available kits, the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Kit (Genscript Biotech, Piscataway, NJ, USA) and R-FIND SARS-CoV-2 NAbs ELISA (SG Medical, Seoul, Korea). Median percent signal inhibition of NAbs was significantly higher after the second than after the first dose of vaccine, as determined using both the Genscript (median 43.1[IQR 71.2] vs. 93.6[83.1], p = 0.004) and R-FIND (53.2[82.6] vs. 76.8 [90.6], p = 0.03) kits. The percent signal inhibition of NAbs after the second dose of vaccine was higher in HCWs with than without systemic adverse events after the second dose, as determined using both the Genscript (p = 0.03) and R-FIND (p = 0.07) kits. The two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine induced high value of NAbs 3 weeks after vaccination. Immune responses were stronger in HCWs with than without adverse reactions after the second dose of ChAdOx1 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 395-403, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526888

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeted at the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein have been developed and now under evaluation in clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration currently issued emergency use authorizations for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. In terms of this situation, there is an urgent need to investigate the clinical aspects and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice. Here we provide guidance for the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

6.
Infect Chemother ; 53(1): 166-219, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365727

ABSTRACT

Despite the global effort to mitigate the spread, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic that took more than 2 million lives. There are numerous ongoing clinical studies aiming to find treatment options and many are being published daily. Some effective treatment options, albeit of variable efficacy, have been discovered. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evidence-based methodology, to continuously check for new evidence, and to update recommendations accordingly. Here we provide guidelines on pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e111, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253852

ABSTRACT

The explosive outbreak of COVID-19 led to a shortage of medical resources, including isolation rooms in hospitals, healthcare workers (HCWs) and personal protective equipment. Here, we constructed a new model, non-contact community treatment centres to monitor and quarantine asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients who recorded their own vital signs using a smartphone application. This new model in Korea is useful to overcome shortages of medical resources and to minimise the risk of infection transmission to HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Hospitals, Community/methods , Adult , Female , Hospitals, Community/classification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/methods , Republic of Korea , Self-Care Units
8.
Int J Surg Open ; 28: 27-29, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002646

ABSTRACT

•Proper risk assessment for COVID-19 should be implemented.•Appropriate infection prevention practices for perioperative management are important.•Hospitals should organize dedicated protocols considering its facilities and human resources.

9.
Infect Chemother ; 52(2): 281-304, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918283

ABSTRACT

Since the first case was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China on December 12, 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely to other countries since January 2020. As of April 16, 2020, 10635 confirmed cases have been reported, with 230 deaths in Korea. COVID-19 patients may be asymptomatic or show various clinical manifestations, including acute symptoms such as fever, fatigue, sore throat; pneumonia presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome; and multiple organ failure. As COVID-19 has such varied clinical manifestations and case fatality rates, no standard antiviral therapy regimen has been established other than supportive therapy. In the present guideline, we aim to introduce potentially helpful antiviral and other drug therapies based on in vivo and in vitro research and clinical experiences from many countries.

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