Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332637

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Background Vaccination has helped to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten traditional and novel vaccines have been listed by the World Health Organization for emergency use. Additional alternative approaches may better address ongoing vaccination globally, where there remains an inequity in vaccine distribution. GBP510 is a recombinant protein vaccine, which consists of self-assembling, two-component nanoparticles displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, phase 1/2 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of GBP510 (2-doses at a 28-day interval) adjuvanted with or without AS03 in adults aged 19–85 years. The main outcomes included solicited and unsolicited adverse events;anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody responses;T-cell immune responses. Findings Of 328 participants who underwent randomization, 327 participants received at least 1 dose of vaccine. Each received either 10 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (n = 101), 10 μg unadjuvanted GBP510 (n = 10), 25 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (n = 104), 25 μg unadjuvanted GBP510 (n = 51), or placebo (n = 61). Most solicited adverse events were mild-to-moderate in severity and transient. Higher reactogenicity was observed in the GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 groups compared to the non-adjuvanted and placebo groups. Reactogenicity was higher post-dose 2 compared to post-dose 1, particularly for systemic adverse events. The geometric mean concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG antibody reached 2163.6/2599.2 BAU/mL in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (10 μg/25 μg) by 14 days after the second dose. Two-dose vaccination with 10 μg or 25 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced high titers of neutralizing antibody via pseudovirus (1369.0/1431.5 IU/mL) and wild-type virus (949.8/861.0 IU/mL) assays. Interpretation GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These results support further development of the vaccine candidate, which is currently being evaluated in Phase 3. Funding Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations RESEARCH IN CONTEXT Evidence before this study We searched PubMed for research articles published by December 31, 2021, using the terms “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2,” “vaccine,” and “clinical trial.” In previously reported randomized clinical trials, we found that mRNA vaccines were more immunogenic than adenovirus-vectored vaccines. Solicited adverse events were more frequent and more severe in intensity after the first dose compared to the second dose for adenovirus-vectored vaccines, whereas they increased after the second dose of mRNA or recombinant spike-protein nanoparticle vaccines. Added value of this study This is the first human study evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 protein nanoparticle with and without adjuvant AS03, designed to elicit functional cross-protective responses via receptor-binding domain (RBD). Both 10 and 25 μg of GBP510 with AS03 formulations were well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile. Potent humoral immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD were induced and peaked by day 42 (14 days after the second dose). In addition, GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 elicited a noticeable Th1 response, with production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. IL-4 was inconsistent and IL-5 nearly inexistent response across all groups. Implications of the available evidence The results from this phase 1/2 trial indicate that GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 has an acceptable safety profile with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Two-dose immunization with GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced potent humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320007

ABSTRACT

Memory T-cell responses have been demonstrated after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have not been comprehensively investigated ex vivo. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC-I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes in relation to their functional capacity in acute and convalescent COVID-19. In the convalescent phase, multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes. The frequency of CD127+KLRG1- memory precursor effector cells among multimer+ cells was significantly lower in convalescent individuals with severe disease than those with mild disease. Cytokine-secretion assays combined with MHC-I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to other viruses. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was significantly higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells in both the acute and convalescence phases, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our findings provide insights for effective vaccine development.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312876

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents. However, there is limited literature on the appropriate timing of corticosteroid administration to obtain the best possible patient outcomes.MethodsA retrospective multicenter study was designed to explore the effects of early corticosteroid use on clinical outcomes in 7 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Twenty-two patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled, and they were all treated with corticosteroids. ResultsOf the 22 patients who received corticosteroids, 12 patients (55%) were treated within 10 days from diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics. The initial PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 168.75. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The mean time from diagnosis to steroid use was 4.08 days and the treatment duration was 14 days in the early use group, and 12.80 days and 18.50 days in the late use group, respectively. The PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, C-reactive protein level, and cycle threshold value improved over time in both groups. In the early use group, the time from onset of symptoms to discharge (32.4 days vs 60.0 days, P = 0.030), time from diagnosis to discharge (27.8 days vs 57.4 days, P = 0.024), and hospital stay (26.0 days vs 53.9 days, P = 0.033) were shortened.ConclusionsAmong patients with severe COVID-19, the early use of corticosteroids resulted in a significant improvement in the time to favorable clinical outcomes.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 506, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited literature on the appropriate timing of corticosteroid administration to obtain the best possible patient outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients with severe COVID-19 who received corticosteroid treatment from March 2 to June 30, 2020 in seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We analyzed the patient demographics, characteristics, and clinical outcomes according to the timing of steroid use. Twenty-two patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled, and they were all treated with corticosteroids. RESULTS: Of the 22 patients who received corticosteroids, 12 patients (55%) were treated within 10 days from diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics. The initial PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 168.75. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The mean time from diagnosis to steroid use was 4.08 days and the treatment duration was 14 days in the early use group, while those in the late use group were 12.80 days and 18.50 days, respectively. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio, C-reactive protein level, and cycle threshold value improved over time in both groups. In the early use group, the time from onset of symptoms to discharge (32.4 days vs. 60.0 days, P = 0.030), time from diagnosis to discharge (27.8 days vs. 57.4 days, P = 0.024), and hospital stay (26.0 days vs. 53.9 days, P = 0.033) were shortened. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe COVID-19, early use of corticosteroids showed favorable clinical outcomes which were related to a reduction in the length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
5.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065202

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
6.
Immunity ; 54(1): 44-52.e3, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988082

ABSTRACT

Memory T cell responses have been demonstrated in COVID-19 convalescents, but ex vivo phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been unclear. We detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells by MHC class I multimer staining and examined their phenotypes and functions in acute and convalescent COVID-19. Multimer+ cells exhibited early differentiated effector-memory phenotypes in the early convalescent phase. The frequency of stem-like memory cells was increased among multimer+ cells in the late convalescent phase. Cytokine secretion assays combined with MHC class I multimer staining revealed that the proportion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells was significantly lower among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells than those specific to influenza A virus. Importantly, the proportion of IFN-γ-producing cells was higher in PD-1+ cells than PD-1- cells among multimer+ cells, indicating that PD-1-expressing, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells are not exhausted, but functional. Our current findings provide information for understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/immunology , Acute-Phase Reaction/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Viral Load
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(32): e297, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and dynamic clinical changes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosed in the early phase of illness. This study is a case series of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to 11 hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of respiratory specimens by active surveillance that were finally discharged between February 20 and April 30, 2020 were included. Patients were classified into mild and non-mild groups on initial admission according to oxygen demand and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and the mild group was followed up and subgrouped into non-aggravation and aggravation groups. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients with SARS-CoV2 infection were enrolled. Among the mild group of 136 patients, 11.7% of patients experienced clinical aggravation during hospitalization, but there was no initial clinical parameter on admission predicting their aggravation. Fever (odds ratio [OR], 4.56), thrombocytopenia (OR, 12.87), fever (OR, 27.22) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 300 U/L (OR, 18.35), and CRP > 1 mg/dL (OR, 11.31) significantly indicated aggravation in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 5-day periods, respectively. PCR positivity lasted for a median of 22 days and 32 days after the onset of illness in the non-aggravation and aggravation groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Old age was associated with early severe presentation. Clinical aggravation among asymptomatic or mild patients could not be predicted initially but was heralded by fever and several laboratory markers during the clinical course.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL