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1.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 325-329, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on global health and the world's economies. Proliferation of virulent and deadly SARS-CoV-2 variants require effective transmission mitigation strategies. Under reasonable environmental conditions, culturable and infectious SARS-CoV-2 can survive on contaminated fomites from hours to months. In the present study we evaluated a surface-anchored polymeric quaternary ammonium antimicrobial to help reduce fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from contaminated surfaces. METHODS: Two studies were performed on antimicrobial pre-treated metal disks in March 2020 by two independent Biosafety Level III (BSL-3) equipped laboratories in April 2020. These facilities were in Belgium (the Rega Medical Research Institute) and Australia (the Peter Doherty Institute) and independently applied quantitative carrier-based methodologies using the authentic SARS-CoV-2 isolates (hCoV-19/Australia/VIC01/2020, hCoV-19/Belgium/GHB-03021/2020). RESULTS: Residual dry tests were independently conducted at both facilities and demonstrated sustained virion destruction (108.23 TCID50/carrier GHB-03021 isolate, and 103.66 TCID50/carrier VIC01 isolate) 1 hour (drying) + 10 minutes after inoculation. Reductions are further supported by degradation of RNA on antimicrobial-treated surfaces using qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Using a polymeric quaternary ammonium antimicrobial (EPA/PMRA registered) the results independently support a sustained antiviral effect via SARS-CoV-2 virion destruction and viral RNA degradation. This indicates that silane-anchored quaternary ammonium compound (SiQAC-18) treated surfaces could play an important role in mitigating the communicability and fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , COVID-19 , Fomites , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14915-14927, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368905

ABSTRACT

The rise in coronavirus variants has resulted in surges of the disease across the globe. The mutations in the spike protein on the surface of the virion membrane not only allow for greater transmission but also raise concerns about vaccine effectiveness. Preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, its variants, and other viruses from person to person via airborne or surface transmission requires effective inactivation of the virus. Here, we report a water-borne spray-on coating for the complete inactivation of viral particles and degradation of their RNA. Our nanoworms efficiently bind and, through subsequent large nanoscale conformational changes, rupture the viral membrane and subsequently bind and degrade its RNA. Our coating completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (VIC01) and an evolved SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (B.1.1.7 (alpha)), influenza A, and a surrogate capsid pseudovirus expressing the influenza A virus attachment glycoprotein, hemagglutinin. The polygalactose functionality on the nanoworms targets the conserved S2 subunit on the SARS-CoV-2 virion surface spike glycoprotein for stronger binding, and the additional attachment of guanidine groups catalyze the degradation of its RNA genome. Coating surgical masks with our nanoworms resulted in complete inactivation of VIC01 and B.1.1.7, providing a powerful control measure for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Inactivation was further observed for the influenza A and an AAV-HA capsid pseudovirus, providing broad viral inactivation when using the nanoworm system. The technology described here represents an environmentally friendly coating with a proposed nanomechanical mechanism for inactivation of both enveloped and capsid viruses. The functional nanoworms can be easily modified to target viruses in future pandemics, and is compatible with large scale manufacturing processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Water
3.
chemRxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-8730

ABSTRACT

A commercially available and EPA/PMRA registered quaternary ammonium antimicrobial formulation was applied to stainless steel carrier disks and sent to two virology research institutes to independently determine whether samples treated with SiQAC-C18 antimicrobial material could deactivate deposited SARS-CoV-2 virions on contaminated surfaces. The results independently support a sustained antiviral effect imparted from these treated surfaces by both SARS-CoV-2 virion destruction and degradation of viral RNA. These preliminary results indicate the SiQAC-18 treated surfaces could play an important role in mitigating the communicability and fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(1): e1242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064341

ABSTRACT

Older individuals exhibit a diminished ability to respond to and clear respiratory pathogens and, as such, experience a higher rate of lung infections with a higher mortality rate. It is unclear why respiratory pathogens impact older people disproportionately. Using human lung tissue from donors aged 22-68 years, we assessed how the immune cell landscape in lungs changes throughout life and investigated how these immune cells respond following in vitro exposure to influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, two clinically relevant respiratory viruses. While the frequency of most immune cell subsets profiled in the human lung remained stable with age, memory CD8+ T cells declined, with the tissue-resident memory (Trm) CD8+ T-cell subset being most susceptible to age-associated attrition. Infection of lung tissue with influenza virus resulted in an age-associated attenuation in the antiviral immune response, with aged donors producing less type I interferon (IFN), GM-CSF and IFNγ, the latter correlated with a reduction of IFNγ-producing memory CD8+ T cells. In contrast, irrespective of donor age, exposure of human lung cells to SARS-CoV-2, a pathogen for which all donors were immunologically naïve, did not trigger activation of local immune cells and did not result in the induction of an early IFN response. Our findings show that the attrition of tissue-bound pathogen-specific Trm in the lung that occurs with advanced age, or their absence in immunologically naïve individuals, results in a diminished early antiviral immune response which creates a window of opportunity for respiratory pathogens to gain a greater foothold.

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