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1.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started to spread in Daegu beginning at the end of February 2020. IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with moderate to severe symptoms to improve the understanding of antibody responses. METHODS: We enrolled 312 patients with COVID-19 admitted to seven hospitals located in Daegu. Using serum (or plasma) samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, both IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R-FIND CO¬VID-19 ELISA, SG medical, Seoul, Korea). RESULTS: The median value from the initial diagnosis, confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, to the sampling date was 24 days (day 1 to 88). The total positive rate of IgG was 93.9% and the positive IgM rate was 39.4%, without considering the elapsed period after diagnosis. Positive IgG and IgM rates were highest at 100.0% and 59.0%, respectively, at 3 weeks (15 - 21 days). IgG showed a high positive rate of 79.3% even within 7 days after the initial diag-nosis of the disease and maintained a positive rate of 97.8% until after 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, IgG was detected from the beginning of the diagnosis and persisted for an extended time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses have been suggested to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study investigated the inflammatory markers and cytokines in COVID-19 according to its severity. METHODS: We enrolled 49 patients with COVID-19, who were classified as either moderate or critical cases. Serum or plasma interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in the critical group than in the moderate group (p < 0.001). IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the critical group, with elevated IL-6 levels from the first to third weeks after confirmed PCR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers and cytokines were increased in COVID-19 and closely related to the severity of the disease. We recommend early active monitoring of IL-6 levels along with inflammatory markers for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Biomarkers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
J Virol Methods ; 296: 114217, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281477

ABSTRACT

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the demand for an easily accessible high-throughput screening test is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the extrac-tion-free polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a screening test to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcription PCR was performed in 300 samples (260 SARS-CoV-2 positives and 40 negatives), using both the conventional nucleic acid extraction method (standard method) and the direct method without nucleic acid extraction (direct method). The overall agreement between the standard and direct methods was 86.8 % (kappa 0.60), and the sensitivity of the direct method compared to the standard method was 85.4 %. When the cycle threshold (Ct) value was less than 35, the sensitivity was approximately 90 %-98 %, and when Ct exceeded 35, it decreased to approximately 60 %-65 %. The extraction-free PCR could be useful as a screening test that processes many samples in a short time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 6651045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232376

ABSTRACT

The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in upper and lower respiratory specimens and coinfection with other respiratory pathogens in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was investigated. Study subjects (N = 342) were retrospectively enrolled after being confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive, and their nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), oropharyngeal swab (OPS), and sputum specimens were restored for SARS-CoV-2 retesting and respiratory pathogen detection. The majority of the subjects (96.5%, N = 330) were confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS/OPS specimens. Among the COVID-19 patients (N = 342), 7.9% (N = 27) and 0.9% (N = 3) were coinfected with respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respectively, yielding an 8.8% (N = 30) overall respiratory pathogen coinfection rate. Of the respiratory virus coinfection cases (N = 27), 92.6% (N = 25) were coinfected with a single respiratory virus and 7.4% (N = 2) with two viruses (metapneumovirus/adenovirus and rhinovirus/bocavirus). No triple coinfections of other respiratory viruses or bacteria with SARS-CoV-2 were detected. Respiratory viruses coinfected in the patients with COVID-19 were as follows: rhinovirus (N = 7, 2.1%), respiratory syncytial virus A and B (N = 6, 1.8%), non-SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (229E, NL63, and OC43, N = 5, 1.5%), metapneumovirus (N = 4, 1.2%), influenza A (N = 3, 0.9%), adenovirus (N = 3, 0.9%), and bocavirus (N = 1, 0.3%). In conclusion, the diagnostic value of utilizing NPS/OPS specimens is excellent, and, as the first report in Korea, coinfection with respiratory pathogens was detected at a rate of 8.8% in patients with COVID-19.

7.
J Microbiol ; 59(5): 530-533, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204981

ABSTRACT

To compare the standardized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence of high epicenter region with non-epicenter region, serological studies were performed with a total of 3,268 sera from Daegu City and 3,981 sera from Chungbuk Province. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG results showed a high seroprevalence rate in the Daegu City (epicenter) compared with a non-epicenter area (Chungbuk Province) (1.27% vs. 0.91%, P = 0.0358). It is noteworthy that the highest seroprevalence in Daegu City was found in elderly patients (70's) whereas young adult patients (20's) in Chungbuk Province showed the highest seroprevalence. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers were found in three samples from Daegu City (3/3, 268, 0.09%) while none of the samples from Chungbuk Province were NAb positive. These results demonstrated that even following the large outbreak, the seropositive rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population remained low in South Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(1): e12, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in February 2020 and was controlled at the end of March 2020 in Daegu, the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Daegu. METHODS: In collaboration with Daegu Metropolitan City and Korean Center for Diseases Control, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including viral RNA detection, were obtained from the electronic medical records and cohort database and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariate and multi-variable logistic regression methods and Cox regression model and performed Kaplan-Meier analysis to determine the risk factors associated with the 28-day mortality and release from isolation among the patients. RESULTS: In this study, 7,057 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 (total cohort) who had been diagnosed from February 18 to July 10, 2020 were included. Of the total cohort, 5,467 were asymptomatic to mild patients (77.4%) (asymptomatic 30.6% and mild 46.8%), 985 moderate (14.0%), 380 severe (5.4%), and 225 critical (3.2%). The mortality of the patients was 2.5% (179/7,057). The Cox regression hazard model for the patients with available clinical information (core cohort) (n = 2,254) showed the risk factors for 28-day mortality: age > 70 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.219, P = 0.002), need for O2 supply at admission (HR, 2.995; P = 0.001), fever (> 37.5°C) (HR, 2.808; P = 0.001), diabetes (HR, 2.119; P = 0.008), cancer (HR, 3.043; P = 0.011), dementia (HR, 5.252; P = 0.008), neurological disease (HR, 2.084; P = 0.039), heart failure (HR, 3.234; P = 0.012), and hypertension (HR, 2.160; P = 0.017). The median duration for release from isolation was 33 days (interquartile range, 24.0-46.0) in survivors. The Cox proportional hazard model for the long duration of isolation included severity, age > 70, and dementia. CONCLUSION: Overall, asymptomatic to mild patients were approximately 77% of the total cohort (asymptomatic, 30.6%). The case fatality rate was 2.5%. Risk factors, including older age, need for O2 supply, dementia, and neurological disorder at admission, could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(11): 1678-1679, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245676

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been labelled as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Although person-to-person transmission of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been confirmed, it is not known whether COVID-19 may be transmitted by blood transfusion. Notwithstanding the urgent requirement of blood, it is critical to know whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted by blood transfusion because many individuals may be asymptomatic carriers and may donate blood. Several cases in which specific viral RNA could be detected in the serum from patients with COVID-19 have already been reported; these findings suggest that blood donation may be an unexplored route of transmission. However, the American Association of Blood Banks and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have not recommended any specific SARS-CoV-2-related actions to be taken at blood collection centres at this time. In this report, we describe a case of a 21-year-old man with very severe aplastic anaemia who received apheresis platelet transfusion from an individual who was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. Our patient tested negative for COVID-19 and is awaiting allogeneic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , Blood Component Removal , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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