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2.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 36: 101595, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665445

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a low frequency of use, and thus pathological findings in such patients are valuable. In this case report, a 62-year-old man with a history of hypertension presented with a runny nose. After an at-home COVID-19 positive test, he developed dyspnea and fever. Once admitted to our hospital, his oxygenation worsened, and ECMO was initiated. He died from respiratory failure 69 days after ECMO induction. Macroscopically, the lungs gained mass, were partially consolidated, and were airless. Histological analysis revealed diffuse bronchial epithelial metaplasia and adenoid metaplasia in the alveolar epithelium. Although the lung parenchyma was partially preserved, there was organizing and fibrosis that filled pulmonary alveolus due to COVID-19 and changes resulting from disuse and long-term ECMO.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify associations between smoking status and the severity of COVID-19, using a large-scale data registry of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Japan (COVIREGI-JP), and to explore the reasons for the inconsistent results previously reported on this subject. METHODS: The analysis included 17 666 COVID-19 inpatients aged 20-89 years (10 250 men and 7416 women). We graded the severity of COVID-19 (grades 0 to 5) according to the most intensive treatment required during hospitalization. The smoking status of severe grades 3/4/5 (invasive mechanical ventilation/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/death) and separately of grade 5 (death) were compared with that of grade 0 (no oxygen, reference group) using multiple logistic regression. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age and other factors considering the potential intermediate effects of comorbidities. RESULTS: Among men, former smoking significantly increased the risk of grade 3/4/5 and grade 5, using grade 0 as a reference group, with age- and admission-date-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 1.51 (1.18-1.93) and 1.65 (1.22-2.24), respectively. An additional adjustment for comorbidities weakened the ORs. Similar results were seen for women. Current smoking did not significantly increase the risk of grade 3/4/5 and grade 5 in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COVID-19 was not associated with current or former smoking per se but with the comorbidities caused by smoking. Thus, smoking cessation is likely to be a key factor for preventing smoking-related disease and hence for reducing the risk of severe COVID-19.

4.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 426, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized and include encephalopathy, although direct infection of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial. We herein report the clinical course and cytokine profiles of a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy presenting aphasia. CASE PRESENTATION: An 81-year-old man developed acute consciousness disturbance and status epileptics several days after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following treatment with remdesivir and dexamethasone, his consciousness and epileptic seizures improved; however, amnestic aphasia and agraphia remained. Two months after methylprednisolone pulse and intravenous immunoglobulin, his neurological deficits improved. We found increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but not IL-2 and IL-10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the levels of serum IL-6 and MCP-1 were much higher than those in the CSF. The level of IL-8 in the CSF after immunotherapy was four times higher than that before immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The cytokine profile of our patient was similar to that seen in severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy. We demonstrated (i) that the characteristic aphasia can occur as a focal neurological deficit associated with SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy, and (ii) that IL8-mediated central nervous system inflammation follows systemic inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy and can persist and worsen even after immunotherapy. Monitoring IL-8 in CSF, and long-term corticosteroids may be required for treating SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Apher ; 36(3): 313-321, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct hemoperfusion using a polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene column (PMX-DHP) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive pneumonia patients. METHODS: This study was a case series conducted at a designated infectious diseases hospital. Twelve SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with partial pressure of arterial oxygen/percentage of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio < 300 were treated with PMX-DHP on two consecutive days each during hospitalization. We defined day 1 as the first day when PMX-DHP was performed. PMX-DHP efficacy was assessed on days 7 and 14 after the first treatment based on eight categories. Subsequently, improvement in P/F ratio and urinary biomarkers on days 4 and 8, malfunctions, and ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation avoidance rates were also evaluated. RESULTS: On day 14 after the first treatment, disease severity decreased in 58.3% of the patients. P/F ratio increased while urine ß2-microglobulin decreased on days 4 and 8. Cytokine measurement pre- and post-PMX-DHP revealed decreased levels of interleukin-6 and the factors involved in vascular endothelial injury, including vascular endothelial growth factor. Twenty-two PMX-DHPs were performed, of which seven and five PMX-DHPs led to increased inlet pressure and membrane coagulation, respectively. When the membranes coagulated, the circuitry needed to be reconfigured. Circuit problems were usually observed when D-dimer and fibrin degradation product levels were high before PMX-DHP. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are expected to determine the therapeutic effect of PMX-DHP on COVID-19. Because of the relatively high risk of circuit coagulation, coagulation capacity should be assessed beforehand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Hemoperfusion/methods , Polymyxin B/chemistry , Polystyrenes/chemistry , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arteries/metabolism , Biomarkers/urine , Blood Gas Analysis , Cytokines/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk , beta 2-Microglobulin/urine
7.
Glob Health Med ; 2(3): 193-196, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437175

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with a hyperinflammatory state, and corticosteroid therapy may be effective. We review the recent literature and discuss the appropriate dose and duration of corticosteroid therapy. Low-dose corticosteroid therapy is often used to treat COVID-19. However, several doses of methylprednisolone (or prednisolone) have been attempted, ranging from about 40 mg/day to 2 mg/kg/day. Doses may need to be adjusted depending on severity. Corticosteroid therapy is generally administered for a short period over several days. However, COVID-19-induced respiratory failure is often prolonged, so longer administration may be considered. Careful monitoring for complications due to corticosteroid therapy is vital.

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