Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524167

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread despite the global efforts taken to control it. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), the major protease of SARS-CoV-2, is one of the most interesting targets for antiviral drug development because it is highly conserved among SARS-CoVs and plays an important role in viral replication. Herein, we developed high throughput screening for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor based on AlphaScreen. We screened 91 natural product compounds and found that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an FDA-approved drug, inhibited 3CLpro activity. The 3CLpro inhibitory effect of ATRA was confirmed in vitro by both immunoblotting and AlphaScreen with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 24.7 ± 1.65 µM. ATRA inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 cells, with IC50 = 2.69 ± 0.09 µM in the former and 0.82 ± 0.01 µM in the latter. Further, we showed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of ATRA on the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC); alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. These results suggest that ATRA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100311, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230816

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major global public health concern. Although rapid point-of-care testing for detecting viral antigen is important for management of the outbreak, the current antigen tests are less sensitive than nucleic acid testing. In our current study, we produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exclusively react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and exhibit no cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV. Molecular modeling suggests that the mAbs bind to epitopes present on the exterior surface of the nucleocapsid, making them suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. We further select the optimal pair of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) mAbs using ELISA and then use this mAb pair to develop immunochromatographic assay augmented with silver amplification technology. Our mAbs recognize the variants of concern (501Y.V1-V3) that are currently in circulation. Because of their high performance, the mAbs of this study can serve as good candidates for developing antigen detection kits for COVID-19.

5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104869, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201946

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was officially declared on March 11th, 2020. Since the very beginning, the spread of the virus has been tracked nearly in real-time by worldwide genome sequencing efforts. As of March 2021, more than 830,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been uploaded in GISAID and this wealth of data allowed researchers to study the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during this first pandemic year. In parallel, nomenclatures systems, often with poor consistency among each other, have been developed to designate emerging viral lineages. Despite general fears that the virus might mutate to become more virulent or transmissible, SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity has remained relatively low during the first ~ 8 months of sustained human-to-human transmission. At the end of 2020/beginning of 2021, though, some alarming events started to raise concerns of possible changes in the evolutionary trajectory of the virus. Specifically, three new viral variants associated with extensive transmission have been described as variants of concern (VOC). These variants were first reported in the UK (B.1.1.7), South Africa (B.1.351) and Brazil (P.1). Their designation as VOCs was determined by an increase of local cases and by the high number of amino acid substitutions harboured by these lineages. This latter feature is reminiscent of viral sequences isolated from immunocompromised patients with long-term infection, suggesting a possible causal link. Here we review the events that led to the identification of these lineages, as well as emerging data concerning their possible implications for viral phenotypes, reinfection risk, vaccine efficiency and epidemic potential. Most of the available evidence is, to date, provisional, but still represents a starting point to uncover the potential threat posed by the VOCs. We also stress that genomic surveillance must be strengthened, especially in the wake of the vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085038

ABSTRACT

To predict the clinical outcome of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), we examined relationships among epidemiological data, viral load, and disease severity. We examined viral loads of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in fatal (15 cases), symptomatic/survived (133 cases), and asymptomatic cases (138 cases) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We examined 5768 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and attempted to detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome using RT-qPCR. Among them, the viral genome was detected using the method for the 370 NPS samples with a positive rate of 6.4%. A comparison of each age showed that the fatal case was higher than the survived case and asymptomatic patients. Survived cases were older than asymptomatic patients. Notably, the viral load in the fatal cases was significantly higher than in symptomatic or asymptomatic cases (p < 0.05). These results suggested that a high viral load of the SARS-CoV-2 in elderly patients at an early stage of the disease results in a poor outcome. We should, therefore, intervene early to prevent a severe stage of the disease in such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Internal Medicine ; 127(1):11-15, 2021.
Article in Japanese | ISHO-JP | ID: covidwho-994584

ABSTRACT

Summary The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is genetically similar to the SARS-CoV that emerged in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted by the binding of its major antigen, the S protein, to the ACE2 receptor. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the main antigen, S protein, binds to the ACE2 receptor. The development of vaccines and the clinical application of antiviral drugs are crucial for the control of COVID-19 infection in the future.

8.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890391

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir was initially developed as an antiviral drug against influenza and is currently used in clinical trials against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19). This agent is presumably involved in RNA chain termination during influenza virus replication, although the molecular interactions underlying its potential impact on the coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remain unclear. We performed in silico studies to elucidate detailed molecular interactions between favipiravir and the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). As a result, no interactions between favipiravir ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate (F-RTP), the active form of favipiravir, and the active sites of RdRps (PB1 proteins) from influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus were found, yet the agent bound to the tunnel of the replication genome of PB1 protein leading to the inhibition of replicated RNA passage. In contrast, F-RTP bound to the active sites of coronavirus RdRp in the presence of the agent and RdRp. Further, the agent bound to the replicated RNA terminus in the presence of agent, magnesium ions, nucleotide triphosphate, and RdRp proteins. These results suggest that favipiravir exhibits distinct mechanisms of action against influenza virus and various coronaviruses.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 330-331, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597639
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...