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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307775

ABSTRACT

In light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programs will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. Our capacity to identify which viruses are capable of zoonotic emergence depends on the existence of a technology—a machine learning model or other informatic system—that leverages available data on known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions: What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity, and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it, and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges?

2.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1303-1316, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493009

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted global healthcare and economic systems throughout 2020 with no clear end in sight. While the pandemic continues to have deleterious effects across the globe, mechanisms for disrupting disease transmission have relied on behavioral controls (e.g., social distancing, masks, and hygiene) as there are currently no vaccines approved for use and limited therapeutic options. As this pandemic has demonstrated our vulnerability to newly emerging viruses, there has been strong interest in utilizing proteomics approaches to identify targets for repurposed drugs as novel therapeutic candidates that could be fast-tracked for human use. Building on a previous discussion on the combination of proteomics technologies with clinical data for combating emerging viruses, we discuss how these technologies are being employed for COVID-19 and the current state of knowledge regarding repurposed drugs in these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 710, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329108

ABSTRACT

Scientists across disciplines, policymakers, and journalists have voiced frustration at the unprecedented polarization and misinformation around coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several false dichotomies have been used to polarize debates while oversimplifying complex issues. In this comprehensive narrative review, we deconstruct six common COVID-19 false dichotomies, address the evidence on these topics, identify insights relevant to effective pandemic responses, and highlight knowledge gaps and uncertainties. The topics of this review are: 1) Health and lives vs. economy and livelihoods, 2) Indefinite lockdown vs. unlimited reopening, 3) Symptomatic vs. asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, 4) Droplet vs. aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, 5) Masks for all vs. no masking, and 6) SARS-CoV-2 reinfection vs. no reinfection. We discuss the importance of multidisciplinary integration (health, social, and physical sciences), multilayered approaches to reducing risk ("Emmentaler cheese model"), harm reduction, smart masking, relaxation of interventions, and context-sensitive policymaking for COVID-19 response plans. We also address the challenges in understanding the broad clinical presentation of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. These key issues of science and public health policy have been presented as false dichotomies during the pandemic. However, they are hardly binary, simple, or uniform, and therefore should not be framed as polar extremes. We urge a nuanced understanding of the science and caution against black-or-white messaging, all-or-nothing guidance, and one-size-fits-all approaches. There is a need for meaningful public health communication and science-informed policies that recognize shades of gray, uncertainties, local context, and social determinants of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Public Health , Reinfection
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14536, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315609

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) hospitalizations and deaths disportionally affect males and older ages. Here we investigated the impact of male sex and age comparing sex-matched or age-matched ferrets infected with SARS-CoV-2. Differences in temperature regulation was identified for male ferrets which was accompanied by prolonged viral replication in the upper respiratory tract after infection. Gene expression analysis of the nasal turbinates indicated that 1-year-old female ferrets had significant increases in interferon response genes post infection which were delayed in males. These results provide insight into COVID-19 and suggests that older males may play a role in viral transmission due to decreased antiviral responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Ferrets/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Age Factors , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Interferons/genetics , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , Viral Load , Virus Replication
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009705, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311291

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is a disease affecting several organ systems. A model that captures all clinical symptoms of COVID-19 as well as long-haulers disease is needed. We investigated the host responses associated with infection in several major organ systems including the respiratory tract, the heart, and the kidneys after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters. We found significant increases in inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF) and type II interferons whereas type I interferons were inhibited. Examination of extrapulmonary tissue indicated inflammation in the kidney, liver, and heart which also lacked type I interferon upregulation. Histologically, the heart had evidence of myocarditis and microthrombi while the kidney had tubular inflammation. These results give insight into the multiorgan disease experienced by people with COVID-19 and possibly the prolonged disease in people with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Kidney/immunology , Myocardium/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Myocardium/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology
8.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1303-1316, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977253

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted global healthcare and economic systems throughout 2020 with no clear end in sight. While the pandemic continues to have deleterious effects across the globe, mechanisms for disrupting disease transmission have relied on behavioral controls (e.g., social distancing, masks, and hygiene) as there are currently no vaccines approved for use and limited therapeutic options. As this pandemic has demonstrated our vulnerability to newly emerging viruses, there has been strong interest in utilizing proteomics approaches to identify targets for repurposed drugs as novel therapeutic candidates that could be fast-tracked for human use. Building on a previous discussion on the combination of proteomics technologies with clinical data for combating emerging viruses, we discuss how these technologies are being employed for COVID-19 and the current state of knowledge regarding repurposed drugs in these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(1): 3-17, 2020 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512

ABSTRACT

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-related cases have been confirmed in multiple countries and regions outside mainland China including Germany, France, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Domestically in China, the virus has also been noted in several cities and provinces with cases in all but one provinence. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. Of particular concern is that many healthcare workers have been infected in the current epidemic. There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? What is the animal reservoir? Is there an intermediate animal reservoir? Do the vaccines generated to the SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV or their proteins offer protection against 2019-nCoV? We offer a research perspective on the next steps for the generation of vaccines. We also present data on the use of in silico docking in gaining insight into 2019-nCoV Spike-receptor binding to aid in therapeutic development. Diagnostic PCR protocols can be found at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Travel , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines , Zoonoses
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