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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2112-2115, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562012

ABSTRACT

After BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination, antibody levels to spike, receptor-binding domain, and virus neutralization were examined in 149 nursing home residents and 110 healthcare worker controls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive nursing home residents' median post-second vaccine dose antibody neutralization titers are one-quarter that of SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers.

2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pathog Immun ; 6(1): 135-156, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346785

ABSTRACT

In this review, we summarize the current status of nucleic acid and antigen testing required for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease. Nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) and antigen-detection (Ag) tests occupy a critically important frontline of defense against SARS-CoV-2 in clinical and public health settings. In early stages of this outbreak, we observed that identifying the causative agent of a new illness of unknown origin was greatly accelerated by characterizing the nucleic acid signature of the novel coronavirus. Results from nucleic acid sequencing led to the development of highly sensitive RT-PCR testing for use in clinical settings and to informing best practices for patient care, and in public health settings to the development of strategies for protecting populations. As the current COVID-19 pandemic has evolved, we have seen how NAAT performance has been used to guide and optimize specimen collection, inform patient triage decisions, reveal unexpected clinical symptoms, clarify risks of transmission within patient care facilities, and guide appropriate treatment strategies. For public health settings during the earliest stages of the pandemic, NAATs served as the only tool available for studying the epidemiology of this new disease by identifying infected individuals, studying transmission patterns, modeling population impacts, and enabling disease control organizations and governments to make challenging disease mitigation recommendations to protect the expanding breadth of populations at risk. With time, the nucleic acid signature has provided the information necessary to understand SARS-CoV-2 protein expression for further development of antigen-based point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests. The advent of massive parallel sequencing (ie, next generation sequencing) has afforded the characterization of this novel pathogen, informed the sequences best adapted for RT-PCR assays, guided vaccine production, and is currently used for tracking and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(8): e12112, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272198

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), spread rapidly and became a global pandemic in early 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for viral entry and binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells, making it a major target of the immune system - particularly neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are induced by infection or vaccines. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membraned particles constitutively released by cells, including virally-infected cells. EVs and viruses enclosed within lipid membranes share some characteristics: they are small, sub-micron particles and they overlap in cellular biogenesis and egress routes. Given their shared characteristics, we hypothesized that EVs released from spike-expressing cells could carry spike and serve as decoys for anti-spike nAbs, promoting viral infection. Here, using mass spectrometry and nanoscale flow cytometry (NFC) approaches, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can be incorporated into EVs. Furthermore, we show that spike-carrying EVs act as decoy targets for convalescent patient serum-derived nAbs, reducing their effectiveness in blocking viral entry. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo and highlight the complex interplay between viruses, extracellular vesicles, and the immune system that occurs during viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Flow Cytometry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis
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