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1.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic viral infection, the features of immune response remain to be clarified. METHODS: In the present prospective observational study, 225 healthy individuals in Kumamoto General Hospital, Japan, who received two BNT162b2 doses in February 2021, were enrolled. Correlates of BNT162b2-elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity (50% neutralization titer: NT 50 ;assessed using infectious virions and live target cells) with SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding-IgG and -IgM levels, adverse effects (AEs), ages, and genders were examined. The average half-life of neutralizing activity and the average time length for the loss of detectable neutralizing activity were determined and the potency of serums against variants of concerns was also determined. FINDINGS: Significant rise in NT 50 s was seen in serums on day 28 post-1st dose. A moderate inverse correlation was seen between NT 50 s and ages, but no correlation was seen between NT 50 s and AEs. NT 50 s and IgG levels on day 28 post-1st dose and pain scores following the 2nd shot were greater in women than in men. The average half-life of neutralizing activity in the vaccinees was approximately 67.8 days and the average time length for their serums to lose the detectable neutralizing activity was 198.3 days. While serums from elite-responders (NT 50 s>1,500-fold: the top 4% among all participants' NT 50 s) potently to moderately blocked the infectivity of variants of concerns, some serums with moderate NT 50 s failed to block the infectivity of a beta strain. INTERPRETATION: BNT162b2-elicited immune response has no significant association with AEs. BNT162b2-efficacy is likely diminished to under detection limit by 6-7 months post-1st shot. High-level neutralizing antibody-containing serums potently to moderately block the infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants;however, a few moderate-level neutralizing antibody-containing serums failed to do so. If BNT162b2-elicited immunity memory is short, an additional vaccine or other protective measures would be needed. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: Evidence before this study: While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic viral infection, the salient features of immune response including the persistence of protection remain to be clarified. There is a report that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persist through 6 months after the second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine (Doria-Rose et al. N Engl J Med . 2021;384:2259-2261);however, more definite immune kinetics following mRNA-vaccine-elicited protection have to be clarified. The mRNA-vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants are also to be determined. Added value of this study: In the present prospective study, 225 twice-BNT162b2-dose-receiving individuals in Japan were enrolled. No significant correlation was seen between 50% neutralizing titers (NT 50 s), determined by using infectious SARS-CoV-2 virions and live target cells, and adverse effects. Largely, NT 50 s and IgG levels were greater in women than in men. Following 28 days post-2 nd shot, significant reduction was seen in NT 50 s, IgG, and IgM levels. The average half-life of NT 50 s was ~68 days and the average time-length for participants' serums to lose the detectable activity was ~198 days. Although serums from elite-responders potently to moderately blocked the infectivity of variants of concerns, some serums with moderate NT 50 s failed to block the infectivity of a beta strain. Implications of all the available evidence: BNT162b2 efficacy is likely to be diminished to under detection limit by 6-7 months post-1 st shot on average. Individuals with moderate NT 50 s may fail to block beta variants. If BNT162b2-elicited immune memory is lost soon, additional vaccine(s) or other protective means would be needed.

2.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):194, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570350

ABSTRACT

Background: The CORAL study is a cross-sectional study of the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on allergic and autoimmune dysregulation of infants born in March, April and May 2020, during Ireland's 1 st COVID-19 pandemic Lockdown. Method: Invitations were sent to families of 3065 term, singleton babies. Exclusion criteria were ante-natal PCR-proven SARSCoV-2 in a parent or co-dwelling person, IV antibiotics in neonatal period, multiple births and major congenital anomalies. At 6 months babies were invited to attend CHI Connolly for point-of-care SARSCoV-2 antibody testing. Results: Of the 3065 letters sent 353 babies were enrolled.53.7% of enrolled infants were male, 78.4% were white-Irish, average birth weight was 3.506kg. 45% were first-born and 95.5% of mothers were educated at 3 rd level or higher. Babies' average number of close contacts other than household members was 2.3 during lockdown and 5.6 afterwards. 42.5% were reported to be currently breast-fed at enrolment. By 6 months, 97% of infants had solid foods introduced but only 24.5% had tried egg and 9.6% had tried peanut. Complete primary immunisation uptake at 6 months was 99%. Lastly, 3 babies out of 200 (1.3%) tested showed presence of IgM & IgG SARSCoV-2 antibodies;2 were PCR negative, the other PCR positive. Conclusion: Initial breastfeeding and immunisation uptake to 6 months are reassuringly high in this self-selected, highly-educated cohort. The rare positive antibody tests suggest recent or current infection, so newborn babies appear to have been protected from SARSCoV-2 exposure during the 1 st COVID Pandemic lockdown.

3.
Irish Medical Journal ; 114(7), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1481621
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