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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0174221, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097916

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care antigen tests are an important tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Antigen tests are less sensitive than real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Data on the performance of the BinaxNOW antigen test compared to rRT-PCR and viral culture by symptom and known exposure status, timing during disease, or exposure period and demographic variables are limited. During 3 to 17 November 2020, we collected paired upper respiratory swab specimens to test for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR and Abbott BinaxNOW antigen test at two community testing sites in Pima County, Arizona. We administered a questionnaire to capture symptoms, known exposure status, and previous SARS-CoV-2 test results. Specimens positive by either test were analyzed by viral culture. Previously we showed overall BinaxNOW sensitivity was 52.5%. Here, we showed BinaxNOW sensitivity increased to 65.7% among currently symptomatic individuals reporting a known exposure. BinaxNOW sensitivity was lower among participants with a known exposure and previously symptomatic (32.4%) or never symptomatic (47.1%) within 14 days of testing. Sensitivity was 71.1% in participants within a week of symptom onset. In participants with a known exposure, sensitivity was highest 8 to 10 days postexposure (75%). The positive predictive value for recovery of virus in cell culture was 56.7% for BinaxNOW-positive and 35.4% for rRT-PCR-positive specimens. Result reporting time was 2.5 h for BinaxNOW and 26 h for rRT-PCR. Point-of-care antigen tests have a shorter turnaround time than laboratory-based nucleic acid amplification tests, which allows for more rapid identification of infected individuals. Antigen test sensitivity limitations are important to consider when developing a testing program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065127

ABSTRACT

While risk of fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered low, there is limited environmental data within households. This January-April 2021 investigation describes frequency and types of surfaces positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) among residences with ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 infection, and associations of household characteristics with surface RT-PCR and viable virus positivity. Of 1232 samples from 124 households, 27.8% (n = 342) were RT-PCR positive with nightstands (44.1%) and pillows (40.9%) most frequently positive. SARS-CoV-2 lineage, documented household transmission, greater number of infected persons, shorter interval between illness onset and sampling, total household symptoms, proportion of infected persons ≤12 years old, and persons exhibiting upper respiratory symptoms or diarrhea were associated with more positive surfaces. Viable virus was isolated from 0.2% (n = 3 samples from one household) of all samples. This investigation suggests that while SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces is common, fomite transmission risk in households is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Colorado , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
PloS one ; 17(10), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058466

ABSTRACT

While risk of fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered low, there is limited environmental data within households. This January—April 2021 investigation describes frequency and types of surfaces positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) among residences with ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 infection, and associations of household characteristics with surface RT-PCR and viable virus positivity. Of 1232 samples from 124 households, 27.8% (n = 342) were RT-PCR positive with nightstands (44.1%) and pillows (40.9%) most frequently positive. SARS-CoV-2 lineage, documented household transmission, greater number of infected persons, shorter interval between illness onset and sampling, total household symptoms, proportion of infected persons ≤12 years old, and persons exhibiting upper respiratory symptoms or diarrhea were associated with more positive surfaces. Viable virus was isolated from 0.2% (n = 3 samples from one household) of all samples. This investigation suggests that while SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces is common, fomite transmission risk in households is low.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1265-1270, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056549

ABSTRACT

Increases in severe respiratory illness and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) among children and adolescents resulting from enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections occurred biennially in the United States during 2014, 2016, and 2018, primarily in late summer and fall. Although EV-D68 annual trends are not fully understood, EV-D68 levels were lower than expected in 2020, potentially because of implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures (e.g., wearing face masks, enhanced hand hygiene, and physical distancing) (1). In August 2022, clinicians in several geographic areas notified CDC of an increase in hospitalizations of pediatric patients with severe respiratory illness and positive rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) test results.* Surveillance data were analyzed from multiple national data sources to characterize reported trends in acute respiratory illness (ARI), asthma/reactive airway disease (RAD) exacerbations, and the percentage of positive RV/EV and EV-D68 test results during 2022 compared with previous years. These data demonstrated an increase in emergency department (ED) visits by children and adolescents with ARI and asthma/RAD in late summer 2022. The percentage of positive RV/EV test results in national laboratory-based surveillance and the percentage of positive EV-D68 test results in pediatric sentinel surveillance also increased during this time. Previous increases in EV-D68 respiratory illness have led to substantial resource demands in some hospitals and have also coincided with increases in cases of AFM (2), a rare but serious neurologic disease affecting the spinal cord. Therefore, clinicians should consider AFM in patients with acute flaccid limb weakness, especially after respiratory illness or fever, and ensure prompt hospitalization and referral to specialty care for such cases. Clinicians should also test for poliovirus infection in patients suspected of having AFM because of the clinical similarity to acute flaccid paralysis caused by poliovirus. Ongoing surveillance for EV-D68 is critical to ensuring preparedness for possible future increases in ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , United States/epidemiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017799

ABSTRACT

During July-August 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving 21 residents (all fully vaccinated) and 10 staff (9 fully vaccinated) occurred in a Connecticut nursing home. The outbreak was likely initiated by a fully vaccinated staff member and propagated by fully vaccinated persons. Prior COVID-19 was protective among vaccinated residents.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac212, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018026

ABSTRACT

We compared paired serum specimens from household contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases with detectable SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion with contacts who remained seronegative. No protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with human coronavirus antibodies; however, an increase in common betacoronavirus antibodies was associated with seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 in mild to moderately ill cases.

7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017999

ABSTRACT

Children are capable of initiating COVID-19 transmission into households, but many questions remain about the impact of vaccination on transmission. Data from a COVID-19 Delta variant outbreak at an overnight camp in Texas during June 23-27, 2021 were analyzed. The camp had 451 attendees, including 364 youths aged <18 years and 87 adults. Detailed interviews were conducted with 92 (20.4%) of consenting attendees and 117 household members of interviewed attendees with COVID-19. Among 450 attendees with known case status, the attack rate was 41%, including 42% among youths; attack rates were lower among vaccinated (13%) than among unvaccinated youths (48%). The secondary attack rate was 51% among 115 household contacts of 55 interviewed index patients. Secondary infections occurred in 67% of unvaccinated household members and 33% of fully or partially vaccinated household members. Analyses suggested that household member vaccination and camp attendee masking at home protected against household transmission.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 620-630, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia. METHODS: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children's of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children's of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/virology , Humans , Infant , Viremia
9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958415

ABSTRACT

We compared paired serum specimens from household contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases with detectable SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion with contacts who remained seronegative. No protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with human coronavirus antibodies;however, an increase in common betacoronavirus antibodies was associated with seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 in mild to moderately ill cases.

11.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Characterize college student COVID-19 behaviors and attitudes during the early pandemic. Participants: Students on two university campuses in Wisconsin. METHODS: Surveys administered in September and November 2020. RESULTS: Few students (3-19%) participated in most in-person activities during the semester, with eating at restaurants as the exception (72-80%) and attending work (35%) and parties (33%) also reported more frequently. The majority wore masks in public (94-99%), but comparatively fewer (42%) did so at parties. Mask-wearing at parties decreased from September to November (p < 0.05). Students attending parties, or consuming more alcohol, were less concerned and more likely to take COVID-19-associated risks. CONCLUSIONS: Students were motivated to adhere to COVID-19 prevention measures but gathered socially. Though there was frequent public masking, mask-wearing at parties declined in November and may represent pandemic fatigue. High-yield strategies for decreasing viral spread may include changing masking social norms and engaging with students about creative risk-reduction strategies.

12.
Vaccine ; 40(33): 4845-4855, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. However, evidence is emerging on the degree of protection across variants and in high-transmission settings. To better understand the protection afforded by vaccination specifically in a high-transmission setting, we examined household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during a period of high community incidence with predominant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant, among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts. METHODS: We conducted a household transmission investigation in San Diego County, California, and Denver, Colorado, during January-April 2021. Households were enrolled if they had at least one person with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, demographic information, and vaccination history from all consenting household members. We compared infection risks (IRs), RT-PCR cycle threshold values, SARS-CoV-2 culture results, and antibody statuses among vaccinated and unvaccinated household contacts. RESULTS: We enrolled 493 individuals from 138 households. The SARS-CoV-2 variant was identified from 121/138 households (88%). The most common variants were Alpha (75/121, 62%) and Epsilon (19/121, 16%). There were no households with discordant lineages among household members. One fully vaccinated secondary case was symptomatic (13%); the other 5 were asymptomatic (87%). Among unvaccinated secondary cases, 105/108 (97%) were symptomatic. Among 127 households with a single primary case, the IR for household contacts was 45% (146/322; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 40-51%). The observed IR was higher in unvaccinated (130/257, 49%, 95% CI 45-57%) than fully vaccinated contacts (6/26, 23%, 95% CI 11-42%). A lower proportion of households with a fully vaccinated primary case had secondary cases (1/5, 20%) than households with an unvaccinated primary case (66/108, 62%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated household contacts were reported in this high transmission setting, full vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings further support the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight the need for ongoing vaccination among eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 852-858, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912315

ABSTRACT

On April 21, 2022, CDC issued a health advisory† encouraging U.S. clinicians to report all patients aged <10 years with hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities, after identification of similar cases in both the United States (1) and Europe.§ A high proportion of initially reported patients had adenovirus detected in whole blood specimens, thus the health advisory encouraged clinicians to consider requesting adenovirus testing, preferentially on whole blood specimens. For patients meeting the criteria in the health advisory (patients under investigation [PUIs]), jurisdictional public health authorities abstracted medical charts and interviewed patient caregivers. As of June 15, 2022, a total of 296 PUIs with hepatitis onset on or after October 1, 2021, were reported from 42 U.S. jurisdictions. The median age of PUIs was 2 years, 2 months. Most PUIs were hospitalized (89.9%); 18 (6.1%) required a liver transplant, and 11 (3.7%) died. Adenovirus was detected in a respiratory, blood, or stool specimen of 100 (44.6%) of 224 patients.¶ Current or past infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported in 10 of 98 (10.2%) and 32 of 123 (26.0%) patients, respectively. No common exposures (e.g., travel, food, or toxicants) were identified. This nationwide investigation is ongoing. Further clinical data are needed to understand the cause of hepatitis in these patients and to assess the potential association with adenovirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , United States/epidemiology
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(24): 797-802, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903986

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, CDC was notified of a cluster of previously healthy children with hepatitis of unknown etiology evaluated at a single U.S. hospital (1). On April 21, 2022, following an investigation of this cluster and reports of similar cases in Europe (2,3), a health advisory* was issued requesting U.S. providers to report pediatric cases† of hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities. In the United States and Europe, many of these patients have also received positive adenovirus test results (1,3). Typed specimens have indicated adenovirus type 41, which typically causes gastroenteritis (1,3). Although adenovirus hepatitis has been reported in immunocompromised persons, adenovirus is not a recognized cause of hepatitis in healthy children (4). Because neither acute hepatitis of unknown etiology nor adenovirus type 41 is reportable in the United States, it is unclear whether either has recently increased above historical levels. Data from four sources were analyzed to assess trends in hepatitis-associated emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, liver transplants, and adenovirus stool testing results among children in the United States. Because of potential changes in health care-seeking behavior during 2020-2021, data from October 2021-March 2022 were compared with a pre-COVID-19 pandemic baseline. These data do not suggest an increase in pediatric hepatitis or adenovirus types 40/41 above baseline levels. Pediatric hepatitis is rare, and the relatively low weekly and monthly counts of associated outcomes limit the ability to interpret small changes in incidence. Ongoing assessment of trends, in addition to enhanced epidemiologic investigations, will help contextualize reported cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in U.S. children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Human , Child , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e122-e132, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Spring 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 (Alpha) became the predominant variant in the United States. Research suggests that Alpha has increased transmissibility compared with non-Alpha lineages. We estimated household secondary infection risk (SIR), assessed characteristics associated with transmission, and compared symptoms of persons with Alpha and non-Alpha infections. METHODS: We followed households with SARS-CoV-2 infection for 2 weeks in San Diego County and metropolitan Denver, January to April 2021. We collected epidemiologic information and biospecimens for serology, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and whole-genome sequencing. We stratified SIR and symptoms by lineage and identified characteristics associated with transmission using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: We investigated 127 households with 322 household contacts; 72 households (56.7%) had member(s) with secondary infections. SIRs were not significantly higher for Alpha (61.0% [95% confidence interval, 52.4-69.0%]) than non-Alpha (55.6% [44.7-65.9%], P = .49). In households with Alpha, persons who identified as Asian or Hispanic/Latino had significantly higher SIRs than those who identified as White (P = .01 and .03, respectively). Close contact (eg, kissing, hugging) with primary cases was associated with increased transmission for all lineages. Persons with Alpha infection were more likely to report constitutional symptoms than persons with non-Alpha (86.9% vs 76.8%, P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Household SIRs were similar for Alpha and non-Alpha. Comparable SIRs may be due to saturation of transmission risk in households due to extensive close contact, or true lack of difference in transmission rates. Avoiding close contact within households may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission for all lineages among household members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Pediatr ; 247: 29-37.e7, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the household secondary infection risk (SIR) of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and non-Alpha lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children. STUDY DESIGN: During January to April 2021, we prospectively followed households with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected questionnaires, serial nasopharyngeal swabs for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and whole genome sequencing, and serial blood samples for serology testing. We calculated SIRs by primary case age (pediatric vs adult), household contact age, and viral lineage. We evaluated risk factors associated with transmission and described symptom profiles among children. RESULTS: Among 36 households with pediatric primary cases, 21 (58%) had secondary infections. Among 91 households with adult primary cases, 51 (56%) had secondary infections. SIRs among pediatric and adult primary cases were 45% and 54%, respectively (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.41-1.54). SIRs among pediatric primary cases with Alpha and non-Alpha lineage were 55% and 46%, respectively (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.51-4.53). SIRs among pediatric and adult household contacts were 55% and 49%, respectively (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.50). Among pediatric contacts, no significant differences in the odds of acquiring infection by demographic or household characteristics were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children and adult primary cases to household members was frequent. The risk of secondary infection was similar among child and adult household contacts. Among children, household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of secondary infection was not influenced by lineage. Continued mitigation strategies (eg, masking, physical distancing, vaccination) are needed to protect at-risk groups regardless of virus lineage circulating in communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California , Child , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e20-e26, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short-term rehabilitation units present unique infection control challenges because of high turnover and medically complex residents. In June 2021, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health was notified of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta outbreak in a skilled nursing facility short-term rehabilitation unit. We describe the outbreak and assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: Facility electronic medical records were reviewed for residents who spent > 1 night on the affected unit between June 10 and July 23, 2021, to collect demographics, SARS-CoV-2 test results, underlying medical conditions, vaccination status, and clinical outcomes. Coronavirus disease 2019 VE estimates using Cox proportional hazards models were calculated. RESULTS: Forty (37%) of 109 short-stay rehabilitation unit residents who met inclusion criteria tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2-positive case-patients were mostly male (58%) and White (78%) with a median age of 65 (range, 27-92) years; 11 (27%) were immunocompromised. Of residents, 39% (10 cases, 32 noncases) received 2 doses and 9% (4 cases, 6 noncases) received 1 dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Among nonimmunocompromised residents, adjusted 2-dose primary-series mRNA VE against symptomatic infection was 80% (95% confidence interval, 15-95). More cases were hospitalized (33%) or died (38%) than noncases (10% hospitalized; 16% died). CONCLUSIONS: In this large SARS-CoV-2 Delta outbreak in a high-turnover short-term rehabilitation unit, a low vaccination rate and medically complex resident population were noted alongside severe outcomes. VE of 2-dose primary-series mRNA vaccine against symptomatic infection was the highest in nonimmunocompromised residents. Health departments can use vaccine coverage data to prioritize facilities for assistance in preventing outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arizona , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
18.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336889

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care antigen tests are an important tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection, but they are less clinically sensitive than real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), impacting their efficacy as screening procedures. Our goal in this study was to see whether we could improve this sensitivity by considering antigen test results in combination with other relevant information, namely exposure status and reported symptoms. In November of 2020, we collected 3,419 paired upper respiratory specimens tested by RT-PCR and the Abbott BinaxNOW antigen test at two community testing sites in Pima County, Arizona. We used symptom, exposure, and antigen testing data to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of various symptom definitions in predicting RT-PCR positivity. Our analysis yielded 6 novel multi-symptom case definitions with and without antigen test results, the best of which overall achieved a Youden’s J index of 0.66, as compared with 0.52 for antigen testing alone. Using a random forest as a guide, we show that this definition, along with our others, does not lose the ability to generalize well to new data despite achieving optimal performance in our sample. Our methodology is broadly applicable, and we have made our code publicly available to aid public health practitioners in developing or fine- tuning their own screening rules.

19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(7): 701-709, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825745

ABSTRACT

Importance: As self-collected home antigen tests become widely available, a better understanding of their performance during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of home antigen tests compared with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture by days from illness onset, as well as user acceptability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January to May 2021 in San Diego County, California, and metropolitan Denver, Colorado. The convenience sample included adults and children with RT-PCR-confirmed infection who used self-collected home antigen tests for 15 days and underwent at least 1 nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequencing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the daily sensitivity of home antigen tests to detect RT-PCR-confirmed cases. Secondary outcomes included the daily percentage of antigen test, RT-PCR, and viral culture results that were positive, and antigen test sensitivity compared with same-day RT-PCR and cultures. Antigen test use errors and acceptability were assessed for a subset of participants. Results: This study enrolled 225 persons with RT-PCR-confirmed infection (median [range] age, 29 [1-83] years; 117 female participants [52%]; 10 [4%] Asian, 6 [3%] Black or African American, 50 [22%] Hispanic or Latino, 3 [1%] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 145 [64%] White, and 11 [5%] multiracial individuals) who completed 3044 antigen tests and 642 nasopharyngeal swabs. Antigen test sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 45%-55%) during the infectious period, 64% (95% CI, 56%-70%) compared with same-day RT-PCR, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-90%) compared with same-day cultures. Antigen test sensitivity peaked 4 days after illness onset at 77% (95% CI, 69%-83%). Antigen test sensitivity improved with a second antigen test 1 to 2 days later, particularly early in the infection. Six days after illness onset, antigen test result positivity was 61% (95% CI, 53%-68%). Almost all (216 [96%]) surveyed individuals reported that they would be more likely to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection if home antigen tests were available over the counter. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study of home antigen tests suggest that sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 was moderate compared with RT-PCR and high compared with viral culture. The results also suggest that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative home antigen test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection should test again 1 to 2 days later because test sensitivity peaked several days after illness onset and improved with repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
AJPM Focus ; : 100004, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819492

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mitigation behaviors are key to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We identified behaviors associated with secondary transmission from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 primary cases to household contacts and described characteristics associated with reporting these behaviors. Methods: Households with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were recruited in California and Colorado from January to April 2021. Self-reported behaviors and demographic were collected through interviews. We investigated behaviors associated with transmission, and individual and household characteristics associated with behaviors, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression with Generalized Estimating Equations to account for household clustering. Results: Among household contacts of primary cases, 43.3% (133/307) became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Upon adjusted analysis, household contacts who slept in the same bedroom with the primary case (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.84) and ate food prepared by the primary case (aOR: 1.98 95% CI: 1.02, 3.87) had increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Household contacts in homes ≤2000 ft2 had increased odds of sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case compared to those in homes >2000 ft2 (aOR: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.10). Parents, siblings, and other relationships (extended family, friends, or roommate) of the primary case had decreased odds of eating food prepared by the primary case compared to partners. Conclusion: Sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case and eating food prepared by the primary case were associated with secondary transmission. Household dimension and relationship to primary case were associated with these behaviors. Our findings encourage innovative means to promote adherence to mitigation measures that reduce household transmission.

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