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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100793, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results are being considered to estimate viral clearance in COVID-19 patients. However, there are anecdotal reports of hospitalization from protracted COVID-19 complications despite such confirmed viral clearance, presenting a clinical conundrum. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 222 hospitalized COVID-19 patients to compare those that were readmitted post-viral clearance (hospitalized post-clearance cohort, n = 49) with those that were not re-admitted post-viral clearance (non-hospitalized post-clearance cohort, n = 173) between February and October 2020. In order to differentiate these two cohorts, we used neural network models for the 'augmented curation' of comorbidities and complications with positive sentiment in the Electronic Hosptial Records physician notes. FINDINGS: In the year preceding COVID-19 onset, anemia (n = 13 [26.5%], p-value: 0.007), cardiac arrhythmias (n = 14 [28.6%], p-value: 0.015), and acute kidney injury (n = 7 [14.3%], p-value: 0.030) were significantly enriched in the physician notes of the hospitalized post-clearance cohort. INTERPRETATION: Overall, this retrospective study highlights specific pre-existing conditions that are associated with higher hospitalization rates in COVID-19 patients despite viral clearance and motivates follow-up prospective research into the associated risk factors. FUNDING: This work was supported by Nference, inc.

2.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 55, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135657

ABSTRACT

Intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality in severe COVID-19 patients are driven by "cytokine storms" and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Interim clinical trial results suggest that the corticosteroid dexamethasone displays better 28-day survival in severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation or oxygen. In this study, 10 out of 16 patients (62.5%) that had an average plasma IL-6 value over 10 pg/mL post administration of corticosteroids also had worse outcomes (i.e., ICU stay >15 days or death), compared to 8 out of 41 patients (19.5%) who did not receive corticosteroids (p-value = 0.0024). Given this potential association between post-corticosteroid IL-6 levels and COVID-19 severity, we hypothesized that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR or NR3C1) may be coupled to IL-6 expression in specific cell types that govern cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Examining single-cell RNA-seq data from BALF of severe COVID-19 patients and nearly 2 million cells from a pan-tissue scan shows that alveolar macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells co-express NR3C1 and IL-6, motivating future studies on the links between the regulation of NR3C1 function and IL-6 levels.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 33: 100774, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies are a major class among COVID-19 associated complications. Although anticoagulants such as unfractionated Heparin and Enoxaparin are both being used for therapeutic mitigation of COVID associated coagulopathy (CAC), differences in their clinical outcomes remain to be investigated. METHODS: We analyzed records of 1,113 patients in the Mayo Clinic Electronic Health Record (EHR) database who were admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 between April 4, 2020 and August 31, 2020, including 19 different Mayo Clinic sites in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Among this patient population, we compared cohorts of patients who received different types of anticoagulants, including 441 patients who received unfractionated Heparin and 166 patients who received Enoxaparin. Clinical outcomes at 28 days were compared, and propensity score matching was used to control for potential confounding variables including: demographics, comorbidities, ICU status, chronic kidney disease stage, and oxygenation status. Patients with a history of acute kidney injury and patients who received multiple types of anticoagulants were excluded from the study. FINDINGS: We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated Heparin but not Enoxaparin have higher rates of 28-day mortality (risk ratio: 4.3; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.].: [1.8, 10.2]; p-value: 8.5e-4, Benjamini Hochberg [BH] adjusted p-value: 2.1e-3), after controlling for potential confounding factors. INTERPRETATION: This study emphasizes the need for mechanistically investigating differential modulation of the COVID-associated coagulation cascades by Enoxaparin versus unfractionated Heparin. FUNDING: This work was supported by Nference, inc.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4303-4318, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118166

ABSTRACT

Here we analyze hospitalized andintensive care unit coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient outcomes from the international VIRUS registry (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04323787). We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated heparin but not enoxaparin have a higher mortality-rate (390 of 1012 = 39%) compared to patients administered enoxaparin but not unfractionated heparin (270 of 1939 = 14%), presenting a risk ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [2.42, 3.16]; p = 4.45e-52). This difference persists even after balancing on a number of covariates including demographics, comorbidities, admission diagnoses, and method of oxygenation, with an increased mortality rate on discharge from the hospital of 37% (268 of 733) for unfractionated heparin versus 22% (154 of 711) for enoxaparin, presenting a risk ratio of 1.69 (95% CI: [1.42, 2.00]; p = 1.5e-8). In these balanced cohorts, a number of complications occurred at an elevated rate for patients administered unfractionated heparin compared to patients administered enoxaparin, including acute kidney injury, acute cardiac injury, septic shock, and anemia. Furthermore, a higher percentage of Black/African American COVID patients (414 of 1294 [32%]) were noted to receive unfractionated heparin compared to White/Caucasian COVID patients (671 of 2644 [25%]), risk ratio 1.26 (95% CI: [1.14, 1.40]; p = 7.5e-5). After balancing upon available clinical covariates, this difference in anticoagulant use remained statistically significant (311 of 1047 [30%] for Black/African American vs. 263 of 1047 [25%] for White/Caucasian, p = .02, risk ratio 1.18; 95% CI: [1.03, 1.36]). While retrospective studies cannot suggest any causality, these findings motivate the need for follow-up prospective research into the observed racial disparity in anticoagulant use and outcomes for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Healthcare Disparities , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Cell Death Discov ; 6(1): 138, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962237

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal characterization of SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing from COVID-19 patient's nasopharynx and its juxtaposition with blood-based IgG-seroconversion diagnostic assays is critical to understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection durations. Here, we retrospectively analyze 851 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with at least two positive PCR tests and find that 99 of these patients remain SARS-CoV-2-positive after 4 weeks from their initial diagnosis date. For the 851-patient cohort, the mean lower bound of viral RNA shedding was 17.3 days (SD: 7.8), and the mean upper bound of viral RNA shedding from 668 patients transitioning to confirmed PCR-negative status was 22.7 days (SD: 11.8). Among 104 patients with an IgG test result, 90 patients were seropositive to date, with mean upper bound of time to seropositivity from initial diagnosis being 37.8 days (95% CI: 34.3-41.3). Our findings from juxtaposing IgG and PCR tests thus reveal that some SARS-CoV-2-positive patients are non-hospitalized and seropositive, yet actively shed viral RNA (14 of 90 patients). This study emphasizes the need for monitoring viral loads and neutralizing antibody titers in long-term non-hospitalized shedders as a means of characterizing the SARS-CoV-2 infection lifecycle.

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