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2.
J Infect Public Health ; 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300559

ABSTRACT

The Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games was one of the largest international mass-gathering events held after the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this scoping review, we extracted papers discussing COVID-19 risk assessment or management at the Tokyo 2020 Games to determine the nature of studies that were conducted. Among the 75 papers obtained from two search engines (PubMed and ScienceDirect) and four papers collected from hand-searches, 30 papers were extracted. Only eight papers performed both COVID-19 prior risk assessment and quantitative evaluation of effectiveness measures, highlighting the importance of rapid, solution-focused risk assessment. Furthermore, this review revealed that the findings regarding the spread of COVID-19 infection to citizens in the host country were inconsistent depending on the assessment methods and that assessments of the spread of infection outside the host country were lacking.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 887: 163706, 2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296989

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology is expected to be able to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants at an early stage via next-generation sequencing. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive amplicon sequencing method targeting the spike gene of SARS-CoV-2, which allows for sequencing viral genomes from wastewater containing a low amount of virus. Primers were designed to amplify a relatively long region (599 bp) around the receptor-binding domain in the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene, which could distinguish initial major variants of concern. To validate the methodology, we retrospectively analyzed wastewater samples collected from a septic tank installed in a COVID-19 quarantine facility between October and December 2020. The relative abundance of D614G mutant in SARS-CoV-2 genomes in the facility wastewater increased from 47.5 % to 83.1 % during the study period. The N501Y mutant, which is the characteristic mutation of the Alpha-like strain, was detected from wastewater collected on December 24, 2020, which agreed with the fact that a patient infected with the Alpha-like strain was quarantined in the facility on this date. We then analyzed archived municipal wastewater samples collected between November 2020 and January 2021 that contained low SARS-CoV-2 concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 0.43 copies/qPCR reaction (corresponding to 3.30 to 4.15 log10 copies/L). The targeted amplicon sequencing revealed that the Alpha-like variant with D614G and N501Y mutations was present in municipal wastewater collected on December 4, 2020 and later, suggesting that the variant had already spread in the community before its first clinical confirmation in Japan on December 25, 2020. These results demonstrate that targeted amplicon sequencing of wastewater samples is a powerful surveillance tool applicable to low COVID-19 prevalence periods and may contribute to the early detection of emerging variants.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 881: 163454, 2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296293

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a promising tool to efficiently monitor COVID-19 prevalence in a community. For WBE community surveillance, automation of the viral RNA detection process is ideal. In the present study, we achieved near full-automation of a previously established method, COPMAN (COagulation and Proteolysis method using MAgnetic beads for detection of Nucleic acids in wastewater), which was then applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater for half a year. The automation line employed the Maholo LabDroid and an automated-pipetting device to achieve a high-throughput sample-processing capability of 576 samples per week. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was quantified with the automated COPMAN using samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants in the Sagami River basin in Japan between 1 November 2021 and 24 May 2022, when the numbers of daily reported COVID-19 cases ranged from 0 to 130.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. The automated COPMAN detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 81 out of 132 samples at concentrations of up to 2.8 × 105 copies/L. These concentrations showed direct correlations with subsequently reported clinical cases (5-13 days later), as determined by Pearson's and Spearman's cross-correlation analyses. To compare the results, we also conducted testing with the EPISENS-S (Efficient and Practical virus Identification System with ENhanced Sensitivity for Solids, Ando et al., 2022), a previously reported detection method. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected with EPISENS-S correlated with clinical cases only when using Spearman's method. Our automated COPMAN was shown to be an efficient method for timely and large-scale monitoring of viral RNA, making WBE more feasible for community surveillance.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 882: 163487, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291275

ABSTRACT

A rapid virus concentration method is needed to get high throughput. Reliable results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection in wastewater are necessary for applications in wastewater-based epidemiology. In this study, an automated filtration method using a concentrating pipette (CP Select; Innovaprep) was applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater samples with several modifications to increase its sensitivity and throughput. The performance of the CP Select method was compared to other concentration methods (polyethylene glycol precipitation and direct capture using silica column) to evaluate its applicability to SARS-CoV-2 detection in wastewater. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was successfully detected in six of eight wastewater samples using the CP Select method, whereas other methods could detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all wastewater samples. Enteric viruses, such as noroviruses of genogroups I (NoVs-GI) and II (NoVs-GII) and enteroviruses, were tested, resulting in 100 % NoVs-GII detection using all concentration methods. As for NoVs-GI and enteroviruses, all methods gave comparable number of detected samples in wastewater samples. This study showed that the optimized CP Select method was less sensitive in SARS-CoV-2 detection in wastewater than other methods, whereas all methods were applicable to detect or recover other viruses in wastewater.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 317: 114732, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290746

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the significance of wastewater surveillance in monitoring and tracking the spread of infectious diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. The wastewater surveillance approach detects genetic fragments from viruses in wastewater, which could provide an early warning of outbreaks in communities. In this study, we determined the concentrations of four types of endogenous viruses, including non-enveloped DNA (crAssphage and human adenovirus 40/41), non-enveloped RNA (enterovirus), and enveloped RNA (SARS-CoV-2) viruses, from wastewater samples using the adsorption-extraction (AE) method with electronegative HA membranes of different pore sizes (0.22, 0.45, and 0.80 µm). Our findings showed that the membrane with a pore size of 0.80 µm performed comparably to the membrane with a pore size of 0.45 µm for virus detection/quantitation (repeated measurement one-way ANOVA; p > 0.05). We also determined the recovery efficiencies of indigenous crAssphage and pepper mild mottle virus, which showed recovery efficiencies ranging from 50% to 94% and from 20% to 62%, respectively. Our results suggest that the use of larger pore size membranes may be beneficial for processing larger sample volumes, particularly for environmental waters containing low concentrations of viruses. This study offers valuable insights into the application of the AE method for virus recovery from wastewater, which is essential for monitoring and tracking infectious diseases in communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , Wastewater , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , Adsorption , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , RNA , RNA, Viral
8.
Environ Int ; 173: 107743, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249571

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has the potential to predict COVID-19 cases; however, reliable methods for tracking SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations (CRNA) in wastewater are lacking. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive method (EPISENS-M) employing adsorption-extraction, followed by one-step RT-Preamp and qPCR. The EPISENS-M allowed SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from wastewater at 50 % detection rate when newly reported COVID-19 cases exceed 0.69/100,000 inhabitants in a sewer catchment. Using the EPISENS-M, a longitudinal WBE study was conducted between 28 May 2020 and 16 June 2022 in Sapporo City, Japan, revealing a strong correlation (Pearson's r = 0.94) between CRNA and the newly COVID-19 cases reported by intensive clinical surveillance. Based on this dataset, a mathematical model was developed based on viral shedding dynamics to estimate the newly reported cases using CRNA data and recent clinical data prior to sampling day. This developed model succeeded in predicting the cumulative number of newly reported cases after 5 days of sampling day within a factor of √2 and 2 with a precision of 36 % (16/44) and 64 % (28/44), respectively. By applying this model framework, another estimation mode was developed without the recent clinical data, which successfully predicted the number of COVID-19 cases for the succeeding 5 days within a factor of √2 and 2 with a precision of 39 % (17/44) and 66 % (29/44), respectively. These results demonstrated that the EPISENS-M method combined with the mathematical model can be a powerful tool for predicting COVID-19 cases, especially in the absence of intensive clinical surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Theoretical
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 880: 162694, 2023 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249570

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in the prevalence of Influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been suggested by clinical surveillance. However, there may be potential biases in obtaining an accurate overview of infectious diseases in a community. To elucidate the impact of the COVID-19 on the prevalence of IAV and RSV, we quantified IAV and RSV RNA in wastewater collected from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sapporo, Japan, between October 2018 and January 2023, using highly sensitive EPISENS™ method. From October 2018 to April 2020, the IAV M gene concentrations were positively correlated with the confirmed cases in the corresponding area (Spearman's r = 0.61). Subtype-specific HA genes of IAV were also detected, and their concentrations showed trends that were consistent with clinically reported cases. RSV A and B serotypes were also detected in wastewater, and their concentrations were positively correlated with the confirmed clinical cases (Spearman's r = 0.36-0.52). The detection ratios of IAV and RSV in wastewater decreased from 66.7 % (22/33) and 42.4 % (14/33) to 4.56 % (12/263) and 32.7 % (86/263), respectively in the city after the COVID-19 prevalence. The present study demonstrates the potential usefulness of wastewater-based epidemiology combined with the preservation of wastewater (wastewater banking) as a tool for better management of respiratory viral diseases.

10.
Curr Opin Environ Sci Health ; 33: 100458, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264702

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been demonstrated for its great potential in tracking of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission among populations despite some inherent methodological limitations. These include non-optimized sampling approaches and analytical methods; stability of viruses in sewer systems; partitioning/retention in biofilms; and the singular and inaccurate back-calculation step to predict the number of infected individuals in the community. Future research is expected to (1) standardize best practices in wastewater sampling, analysis and data reporting protocols for the sensitive and reproducible detection of viruses in wastewater; (2) understand the in-sewer viral stability and partitioning under the impacts of dynamic wastewater flow, properties, chemicals, biofilms and sediments; and (3) achieve smart wastewater surveillance with artificial intelligence and big data models. Further specific research is essential in the monitoring of other viral pathogens with pandemic potential and subcatchment applications to maximize the benefits of WBE beyond COVID-19.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 160317, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235224

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) complements the clinical surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants' distribution in populations. Many developed nations have established national and regional WBE systems; however, governance and budget constraints could be obstacles for low- and middle-income countries. An urgent need thus exists to identify hotspots to serve as sentinel sites for WBE. We hypothesized that representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in two international gateway cities, Bangkok and Phuket, Thailand, could be sentineled for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to reflect the clinical distribution patterns at city level and serve as early indicators of new variants entering the country. Municipal wastewater samples (n = 132) were collected from eight representative municipal WWTPs in Bangkok and Phuket during 19 sampling events from October 2021 to March 2022, which were tested by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using the US CDC N1 and N2 multiplex and variant (Alpha, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2) singleplex assays. The variant detection ratios from Bangkok and Phuket followed similar trends to the national clinical testing data, and each variant's viral loads agreed with the daily new cases (3-d moving average). Omicron BA.1 was detected in Phuket wastewater prior to Bangkok, possibly due to Phuket's WWTPs serving tourist communities. We found that the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 viral loads predominantly drove the SARS-CoV-2 resurgence. We also noted a shifting pattern in the Bangkok WBE from a 22-d early warning in early 2021 to a near real-time pattern in late 2021. The potential application of tourist hotspots for WBE to indicate the arrival of new variants and re-emerging or unprecedented infectious agents could support tourism-dependent economies by complementing the reduced clinical regulations while maintaining public health protection via wastewater surveillance.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 157101, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211383

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology has attracted attention as a COVID-19 surveillance tool. Here, we developed a practical method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater (the EPISENS-S method), which employs direct RNA extraction from wastewater pellets formed via low-speed centrifugation. The subsequent multiplex one-step RT-preamplification reaction with forward and reverse primers for SARS-CoV-2 and a reverse primer only for pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) allowed for qPCR quantification of the targets with different abundances in wastewater from the RT-preamplification product. The detection sensitivity of the method was evaluated using wastewater samples seeded with heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in concentrations of 2.11 × 103 to 2.11 × 106 copies/L. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the EPISENS-S method was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the conventional method (PEG precipitation, followed by regular RT-qPCR; PEG-QVR-qPCR). A total of 37 untreated wastewater samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sapporo, Japan when 1.6 to 18 new daily reported cases per 100,000 people were reported in the city (March 4 to July 8, 2021), were examined using the EPISENS-S method to confirm its applicability to municipal wastewater. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was quantified in 92 % (34/37) of the samples via the EPISENS-S method, whereas none of the samples (0/37) was quantifiable via the PEG-QVR-qPCR method. The PMMoV concentrations measured by the EPISENS-S method ranged from 2.60 × 106 to 1.90 × 108 copies/L, and the SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations normalized by PMMoV ranged from 5.71 × 10-6 to 9.51 × 10-4 . The long-term trend of normalized SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater was consistent with that of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the city. These results demonstrate that the EPISENS-S method is highly sensitive and suitable for routine COVID-19 wastewater surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161023, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159794

ABSTRACT

The early warning and tracking of COVID-19 prevalence in the community provided by wastewater surveillance has highlighted its potential for much broader viral disease surveillance. In this proof-of-concept study, 46 wastewater samples from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Queensland, Australia, were analyzed for the presence and abundance of 13 respiratory viruses, and the results were compared with reported clinical cases. The viruses were concentrated using the adsorption-extraction (AE) method, and extracted nucleic acids were analyzed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Among the viruses tested, bocavirus (BoV), parechovirus (PeV), rhinovirus A (RhV A) and rhinovirus B (RhV B) were detected in all wastewater samples. All the tested viruses except influenza B virus (IBV) were detected in wastewater sample from at least one WWTP. BoV was detected with the greatest concentration (4.96-7.22 log10 GC/L), followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (4.08-6.46 log10 GC/L), RhV A (3.95-5.63 log10 GC/L), RhV B (3.74-5.61 log10 GC/L), and PeV (3.17-5.32 log10 GC/L). Influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are notifiable conditions in Queensland, allowing the gene copy (GC) concentrations to be compared with reported clinical cases. Significant correlations (ρ = 0.60, p < 0.01 for IAV and ρ = 0.53, p < 0.01 for RSV) were observed when pooled wastewater influenza A virus (IAV) and RSV log10 GC/L concentrations were compared to log10 clinical cases among the four WWTP catchments. The positive predictive value for the presence of IAV and RSV in wastewater was 97 % for both IAV and RSV clinical cases within the four WWTP catchments. The overall accuracy of wastewater analysis for predicting clinical cases of IAV and RSV was 97 and 90 %, respectively. This paper lends credibility to the application of wastewater surveillance to monitor respiratory viruses of various genomic characteristics, with potential uses for increased surveillance capabilities and as a tool in understanding the dynamics of disease circulation in the communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Influenza, Human , Humans , Wastewater , Queensland/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Australia , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157869, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049902

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to be present in sewage, and wastewater-based epidemiology has attracted much attention. However, the physical partitioning of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the removal efficiency of treatment systems require further investigation. This study aimed to investigate the detectability and physical partitioning of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and assess its removal in a large-scale septic tank employing anaerobic, anoxic, and oxic processes in a sequential batch reactor, which was installed in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine facility. The amount of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater was determined with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the association of SARS-CoV-2 with wastewater solids was evaluated by the effect of filtration prior to PEG precipitation (pre-filtration). The amount of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected from pre-filtered samples was substantially lower than that of samples without pre-filtration. These results suggest that most SARS-CoV-2 particles in wastewater are associated with the suspended solids excluded by pre-filtration. The removal efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 in the septic tank was evaluated based on the SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in untreated and treated wastewater, which was determined by the detection method optimized in this study. Escherichia coli and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were also quantified to validate the wastewater treatment system's performance. The mean log10 reduction values of SARS-CoV-2, E. coli, and PMMoV were 2.47 (range, 2.25-2.68), 2.81 (range, 2.45-3.18), and 0.66 (range, 0.61-0.70), respectively, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 removal by the wastewater treatment system was comparable to or better than the removal of fecal indicators. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can be readily removed by the septic tank. This is the first study to determine the removal efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 in a facility-level sequencing batch activated sludge system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Japan , Polyethylene Glycols , Quarantine , RNA, Viral , Sewage , Wastewater
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158966, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042126

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) attracted attention as an objective and comprehensive indicator of community infection that does not require individual inspection. Although several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection methods from wastewater have been developed, there are obstacles to their social implementation. In this study, we developed the COPMAN (Coagulation and Proteolysis method using Magnetic beads for detection of Nucleic acids in wastewater), an automatable method that can concentrate and detect multiple types of viruses from a limited volume (∼10 mL) of wastewater. The COPMAN consists of a high basicity polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation process, magnetic bead-based RNA purification, and RT-preamplification, followed by qPCR. A series of enzymes exhibiting a high tolerance to PCR inhibitors derived from wastewater was identified and employed in the molecular detection steps in the COPMAN. We compared the detectability of viral RNA from 10-mL samples of virus-spiked (heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and intact RSV) or unspiked wastewater by the COPMAN and other methods (PEG-qPCR, UF-qPCR, and EPISENS-S). The COPMAN was the most efficient for detecting spiked viruses from wastewater, detecting the highest level of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a typical intrinsic virus in human stool, from wastewater samples. The COPMAN also successfully detected indigenous SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 12 samples of wastewater at concentrations of 2.2 × 104 to 5.4 × 105 copies/L, during initial stages of an infection wave in the right and the left bank of the Sagami River in Japan (0.65 to 11.45 daily reported cases per 100,000 people). These results indicate that the COPMAN is suitable for detection of multiple pathogens from small volume of wastewater in automated stations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral , Wastewater , COVID-19/diagnosis
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158659, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008109

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuously emerging, highlighting the importance of regular surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemiologically significant pathogenic viruses in the current context. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is expensive, time-consuming, labor-intensive, requires a large reagent volume, and only tests a few targets in a single run. High-throughput qPCR (HT-qPCR) utilizing the Biomark HD system (Fluidigm) can be used as an alternative. This study applied an HT-qPCR to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide substituted RNA, and other pathogenic viruses in wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine facility between October 2020 and February 2021 (n = 4) and from the combined and separated sewer lines of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, between March and August 2021 (n = 23 each). The samples were analyzed by HT-qPCR using five SARS-CoV-2, nine SARS-CoV-2 spike gene nucleotide substitution-specific, five pathogenic viruses, and three process control assays. All samples from the quarantine facility tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the nucleotide substitutions N501Y and S69-70 del (Alpha variant) were detected in the December 2020 sample, coinciding with the first clinical case in Japan. Only three WWTP samples were positive when tested with a single SARS-CoV-2 assay, whereas more than eight samples were positive when tested with all assays, indicating that using multiple assays increases the likelihood of detection. The nucleotide substitution L452R (Delta variant) was detected in the WWTP samples of Mie Prefecture in April 2021, but the detection of Delta variant from patients had not been reported until May 2021. Aichi virus 1 and norovirus GII were prevalent in WWTP samples. This study demonstrated that HT-qPCR may be the most time- and cost-efficient method for tracking COVID-19 and broadly monitoring community health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wastewater , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Nucleotides
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129848, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004219

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been considered as a promising approach for population-wide surveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many studies have successfully quantified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA concentration in wastewater (CRNA). However, the correlation between the CRNA and the COVID-19 clinically confirmed cases in the corresponding wastewater catchments varies and the impacts of environmental and other factors remain unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to identify the correlation between CRNA and various types of clinically confirmed case numbers, including prevalence and incidence rates. The impacts of environmental factors, WBE sampling design, and epidemiological conditions on the correlation were assessed for the same datasets. The systematic review identified 133 correlation coefficients, ranging from -0.38 to 0.99. The correlation between CRNA and new cases (either daily new, weekly new, or future cases) was stronger than that of active cases and cumulative cases. These correlation coefficients were potentially affected by environmental and epidemiological conditions and WBE sampling design. Larger variations of air temperature and clinical testing coverage, and the increase of catchment size showed strong negative impacts on the correlation between CRNA and COVID-19 case numbers. Interestingly, the sampling technique had negligible impact although increasing the sampling frequency improved the correlation. These findings highlight the importance of viral shedding dynamics, in-sewer decay, WBE sampling design and clinical testing on the accurate back-estimation of COVID-19 case numbers through the WBE approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
19.
Water Res ; 218: 118451, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783834

ABSTRACT

As a cost-effective and objective population-wide surveillance tool, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been widely implemented worldwide to monitor the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA concentration in wastewater. However, viral concentrations or loads in wastewater often correlate poorly with clinical case numbers. To date, there is no reliable method to back-estimate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case numbers from SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater. This greatly limits WBE in achieving its full potential in monitoring the unfolding pandemic. The exponentially growing SARS-CoV-2 WBE dataset, on the other hand, offers an opportunity to develop data-driven models for the estimation of COVID-19 case numbers (both incidence and prevalence) and transmission dynamics (effective reproduction rate). This study developed artificial neural network (ANN) models by innovatively expanding a conventional WBE dataset to include catchment, weather, clinical testing coverage and vaccination rate. The ANN models were trained and evaluated with a comprehensive state-wide wastewater monitoring dataset from Utah, USA during May 2020 to December 2021. In diverse sewer catchments, ANN models were found to accurately estimate the COVID-19 prevalence and incidence rates, with excellent precision for prevalence rates. Also, an ANN model was developed to estimate the effective reproduction number from both wastewater data and other pertinent factors affecting viral transmission and pandemic dynamics. The established ANN model was successfully validated for its transferability to other states or countries using the WBE dataset from Wisconsin, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , RNA, Viral , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Wastewater
20.
Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. G (Environmental Research) ; 77(7):III_191-III_197, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1736656
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