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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1865(6): 184174, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324713

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID, replicates at intracellular membranes. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; tetherin) is an antiviral response protein that inhibits transport of viral particles after budding within infected cells. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 use various strategies to disable BST-2, including use of transmembrane 'accessory' proteins that interfere with BST-2 oligomerization. ORF7a is a small, transmembrane protein present in SARS-CoV-2 shown previously to alter BST-2 glycosylation and function. In this study, we investigated the structural basis for BST-2 ORF7a interactions, with a particular focus on transmembrane and juxtamembrane interactions. Our results indicate that transmembrane domains play an important role in BST-2 ORF7a interactions and mutations to the transmembrane domain of BST-2 can alter these interactions, particularly single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BST-2 that result in mutations such as I28S. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we identified specific interfaces and interactions between BST-2 and ORF7a to develop a structural basis for the transmembrane interactions. Differences in glycosylation are observed for BST-2 transmembrane mutants interacting with ORF7a, consistent with the idea that transmembrane domains play a key role in their heterooligomerization. Overall, our results indicate that ORF7a transmembrane domain interactions play a key role along with extracellular and juxtamembrane domains in modulating BST-2 function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cell Membrane/genetics , Cell Membrane/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
2.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2902-2913, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605015

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to rage with devastating consequences on human health and global economy. The spike glycoprotein on the surface of coronavirus mediates its entry into host cells and is the target of all current antibody design efforts to neutralize the virus. The glycan shield of the spike helps the virus to evade the human immune response by providing a thick sugar-coated barrier against any antibody. To study the dynamic motion of glycans in the spike protein, we performed microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulation in two different states that correspond to the receptor binding domain in open or closed conformations. Analysis of this microsecond-long simulation revealed a scissoring motion on the N-terminal domain of neighboring monomers in the spike trimer. The roles of multiple glycans in shielding of spike protein in different regions were uncovered by a network analysis, in which the high betweenness centrality of glycans at the apex revealed their importance and function in the glycan shield. Microdomains of glycans were identified featuring a high degree of intracommunication in these microdomains. An antibody overlap analysis revealed the glycan microdomains as well as individual glycans that inhibit access to the antibody epitopes on the spike protein. Overall, the results of this study provide detailed understanding of the spike glycan shield, which may be utilized for therapeutic efforts against this crisis.

3.
MEDLINE; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE | ID: grc-750462

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (nCOV-2019) outbreak has put the world on edge, causing millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths all around the world, as of June 2020, let alone the societal and economic impacts of the crisis. The spike protein of nCOV-2019 resides on the virion's surface mediating coronavirus entry into host cells by binding its receptor binding domain (RBD) to the host cell surface receptor protein, angiotensin converter enzyme (ACE2). Our goal is to provide a detailed structural mechanism of how nCOV-2019 recognizes and establishes contacts with ACE2 and its difference with an earlier coronavirus SARS-COV in 2002 via extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Numerous mutations have been identified in the RBD of nCOV-2019 strains isolated from humans in different parts of the world. In this study, we investigated the effect of these mutations as well as other Ala-scanning mutations on the stability of RBD/ACE2 complex. It is found that most of the naturally-occurring mutations to the RBD either strengthen or have the same binding affinity to ACE2 as the wild-type nCOV-2019. This may have implications for high human-to-human transmission of coronavirus in regions where these mutations have been found as well as any vaccine design endeavors since these mutations could act as antibody escape mutants. Furthermore, in-silico Ala-scanning and long-timescale MD simulations, highlight the crucial role of the residues at the interface of RBD and ACE2 that may be used as potential pharmacophores for any drug development endeavors. From an evolutional perspective, this study also identifies how the virus has evolved from its predecessor SARS-COV and how it could further evolve to become more infectious.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(45): 10034-10047, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894362

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (nCOV-2019) outbreak has put the world on edge, causing millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths all around the world, as of June 2020, let alone the societal and economic impacts of the crisis. The spike protein of nCOV-2019 resides on the virion's surface mediating coronavirus entry into host cells by binding its receptor binding domain (RBD) to the host cell surface receptor protein, angiotensin converter enzyme (ACE2). Our goal is to provide a detailed structural mechanism of how nCOV-2019 recognizes and establishes contacts with ACE2 and its difference with an earlier severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV) in 2002 via extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Numerous mutations have been identified in the RBD of nCOV-2019 strains isolated from humans in different parts of the world. In this study, we investigated the effect of these mutations as well as other Ala-scanning mutations on the stability of the RBD/ACE2 complex. It is found that most of the naturally occurring mutations to the RBD either slightly strengthen or have the same binding affinity to ACE2 as the wild-type nCOV-2019. This means that the virus had sufficient binding affinity to its receptor at the beginning of the crisis. This also has implications for any vaccine design endeavors since these mutations could act as antibody escape mutants. Furthermore, in silico Ala-scanning and long-timescale MD simulations highlight the crucial role of the residues at the interface of RBD and ACE2 that may be used as potential pharmacophores for any drug development endeavors. From an evolutional perspective, this study also identifies how the virus has evolved from its predecessor SARS-COV and how it could further evolve to become even more infectious.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Binding Sites , Humans , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, Protein
5.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636601

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (nCOV-2019) outbreak has put the world on edge, causing millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths all around the world, as of June 2020, let alone the societal and economic impacts of the crisis. The spike protein of nCOV-2019 resides on the virion's surface mediating coronavirus entry into host cells by binding its receptor binding domain (RBD) to the host cell surface receptor protein, angiotensin converter enzyme (ACE2). Our goal is to provide a detailed structural mechanism of how nCOV-2019 recognizes and establishes contacts with ACE2 and its difference with an earlier coronavirus SARS-COV in 2002 via extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Numerous mutations have been identified in the RBD of nCOV-2019 strains isolated from humans in different parts of the world. In this study, we investigated the effect of these mutations as well as other Ala-scanning mutations on the stability of RBD/ACE2 complex. It is found that most of the naturally-occurring mutations to the RBD either strengthen or have the same binding affinity to ACE2 as the wild-type nCOV-2019. This may have implications for high human-to-human transmission of coronavirus in regions where these mutations have been found as well as any vaccine design endeavors since these mutations could act as antibody escape mutants. Furthermore, in-silico Ala-scanning and long-timescale MD simulations, highlight the crucial role of the residues at the interface of RBD and ACE2 that may be used as potential pharmacophores for any drug development endeavors. From an evolutional perspective, this study also identifies how the virus has evolved from its predecessor SARS-COV and how it could further evolve to become more infectious.

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