Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2079346, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878720

ABSTRACT

Low-cost, refrigerator-stable COVID-19 vaccines will facilitate global access and improve vaccine coverage in low- and middle-income countries. To this end, subunit-based approaches targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein remain attractive. Antibodies against RBD neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by blocking viral attachment to the host cell receptor, ACE2. Here, a yeast-produced recombinant RBD antigen (RBD-L452K-F490W or RBD-J) was formulated with various combinations of aluminum-salt (Alhydrogel®, AH; AdjuPhos®, AP) and CpG 1018 adjuvants. We assessed the effect of antigen-adjuvant interactions on the stability and mouse immunogenicity of various RBD-J preparations. While RBD-J was 50% adsorbed to AH and <15% to AP, addition of CpG resulted in complete AH binding, yet no improvement in AP adsorption. ACE2 competition ELISA analyses of formulated RBD-J stored at varying temperatures (4, 25, 37°C) revealed that RBD-J was destabilized by AH, an effect exacerbated by CpG. DSC studies demonstrated that aluminum-salt and CpG adjuvants decrease the conformational stability of RBD-J and suggest a direct CpG-RBD-J interaction. Although AH+CpG-adjuvanted RBD-J was the least stable in vitro, the formulation was most potent at eliciting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralizing antibodies in mice. In contrast, RBD-J formulated with AP+CpG showed minimal antigen-adjuvant interactions, a better stability profile, but suboptimal immune responses. Interestingly, the loss of in vivo potency associated with heat-stressed RBD-J formulated with AH+CpG after one dose was abrogated by a booster. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating the key interrelationships between antigen-adjuvant interactions, storage stability, and in vivo performance to enable successful formulation development of stable and efficacious subunit vaccines.

2.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 55, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860374

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants enhance the magnitude and the durability of the immune response to vaccines. However, there is a paucity of comparative studies on the nature of the immune responses stimulated by leading adjuvant candidates. In this study, we compared five clinically relevant adjuvants in mice-alum, AS03 (a squalene-based adjuvant supplemented with α-tocopherol), AS37 (a TLR7 ligand emulsified in alum), CpG1018 (a TLR9 ligand emulsified in alum), O/W 1849101 (a squalene-based adjuvant)-for their capacity to stimulate immune responses when combined with a subunit vaccine under clinical development. We found that all four of the adjuvant candidates surpassed alum with respect to their capacity to induce enhanced and durable antigen-specific antibody responses. The TLR-agonist-based adjuvants CpG1018 (TLR9) and AS37 (TLR7) induced Th1-skewed CD4+ T cell responses, while alum, O/W, and AS03 induced a balanced Th1/Th2 response. Consistent with this, adjuvants induced distinct patterns of early innate responses. Finally, vaccines adjuvanted with AS03, AS37, and CpG1018/alum-induced durable neutralizing-antibody responses and significant protection against the B.1.351 variant 7 months following immunization. These results, together with our recent results from an identical study in non-human primates (NHPs), provide a comparative benchmarking of five clinically relevant vaccine adjuvants for their capacity to stimulate immunity to a subunit vaccine, demonstrating the capacity of adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines to provide durable protection against the B.1.351 variant. Furthermore, these results reveal differences between the widely-used C57BL/6 mouse strain and NHP animal models, highlighting the importance of species selection for future vaccine and adjuvant studies.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330741

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a major global health challenge. Here we present data from a study in non-human primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, consisting of RBD (receptor binding domain) on the I53-50 nanoparticle, adjuvanted with AS03, currently in Phase 3 clinical trial ( NCT05007951 ). Vaccination induced robust neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high levels for at least one year after two doses (Pseudovirus nAb GMT: 2207, Live-virus nAb GMT: 1964) against the ancestral strain, but not against Omicron. However, a booster dose at 6-12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-B (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited equivalent and remarkably high neutralizing titers against the ancestral as well as the Omicron variant. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Importantly, vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung (no detectable virus in any animal) and profound suppression of viral burden in the nares (median peak viral load of 7567 as opposed to 1.3x107 copies in unvaccinated animals) at 6 weeks post final booster. Even at 6 months post vaccination, there was significant protection in the lung (with 7 out of 11 animals showing no viral load, 3 out of 11 animals showing ~20-fold lower viral load than unvaccinated controls) and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine platform.

4.
Sci Adv ; 8(11): eabl6015, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745843

ABSTRACT

Authorized vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 remain less available in low- and middle-income countries due to insufficient supply, high costs, and storage requirements. Global immunity could still benefit from new vaccines using widely available, safe adjuvants, such as alum and protein subunits, suited to low-cost production in existing manufacturing facilities. Here, a clinical-stage vaccine candidate comprising a SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-hepatitis B surface antigen virus-like particle elicited protective immunity in cynomolgus macaques. Titers of neutralizing antibodies (>104) induced by this candidate were above the range of protection for other licensed vaccines in nonhuman primates. Including CpG 1018 did not significantly improve the immunological responses. Vaccinated animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2 showed reduced median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage (~3.4 log10) and nasal mucosa (~2.9 log10) versus sham controls. These data support the potential benefit of this design for a low-cost modular vaccine platform for SARS-CoV-2 and other variants of concern or betacoronaviruses.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556620

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza vaccination elicits a diminished adaptive immune response in the elderly, and the mechanisms of immunosenescence are not fully understood. Using Ig-Seq, we found a marked increase with age in the prevalence of cross-reactive (CR) serum antibodies that recognize both the H1N1 (vaccine-H1) and H3N2 (vaccine-H3) components of an egg-produced split influenza vaccine. CR antibodies accounted for 73% ± 18% of the serum vaccine responses in a cohort of elderly donors, 65% ± 15% in late middle-aged donors, and only 13% ± 5% in persons under 35 years of age. The antibody response to non-HA antigens was boosted by vaccination. Recombinant expression of 19 vaccine-H1+H3 CR serum monoclonal antibodies (s-mAbs) revealed that they predominantly bound to non-HA influenza proteins. A sizable fraction of vaccine-H1+H3 CR s-mAbs recognized with high affinity the sulfated glycans, in particular sulfated type 2 N-acetyllactosamine (Galß1-4GalNAcß), which is found on egg-produced proteins and thus unlikely to contribute to protection against influenza infection in humans. Antibodies against sulfated glycans in egg-produced vaccine had been identified in animals but were not previously characterized in humans. Collectively, our results provide a quantitative basis for how repeated exposure to split influenza vaccine correlates with unintended focusing of serum antibody responses to non-HA antigens that may result in suboptimal immunity against influenza.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Eggs/analysis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle Aged , Polysaccharides/immunology , Vaccination
6.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 128, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545613

ABSTRACT

Vaccination of the global population against COVID-19 is a great scientific, logistical, and moral challenge. Despite the rapid development and authorization of several full-length Spike (S) protein vaccines, the global demand outweighs the current supply and there is a need for safe, potent, high-volume, affordable vaccines that can fill this gap, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Whether SARS-CoV-2 S-protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based vaccines could fill this gap has been debated, especially with regards to its suitability to protect against emerging viral variants of concern. Given a predominance for elicitation of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that target RBD following natural infection or vaccination, a key biomarker of protection, there is merit for selection of RBD as a sole vaccine immunogen. With its high-yielding production and manufacturing potential, RBD-based vaccines offer an abundance of temperature-stable doses at an affordable cost. In addition, as the RBD preferentially focuses the immune response to potent and recently recognized cross-protective determinants, this domain may be central to the development of future pan-sarbecovirus vaccines. In this study, we review the data supporting the non-inferiority of RBD as a vaccine immunogen compared to full-length S-protein vaccines with respect to humoral and cellular immune responses against both the prototype pandemic SARS-CoV-2 isolate and emerging variants of concern.

7.
Cell ; 184(21): 5432-5447.e16, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454060

ABSTRACT

Understanding vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain nanoparticle (RBD-NP) vaccine protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single immunization, indicating a potential dose-sparing strategy. We benchmarked serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NPs in non-human primates against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (HexaPro) using a panel of circulating mutants. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are similarly resilient to many RBD residue substitutions tested, although mutations at and surrounding position 484 have negative consequences for neutralization. Mosaic and cocktail nanoparticle immunogens displaying multiple sarbecovirus RBDs elicit broad neutralizing activity in mice and protect mice against SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397979

ABSTRACT

Global containment of COVID-19 still requires accessible and affordable vaccines for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Recently approved vaccines provide needed interventions, albeit at prices that may limit their global access. Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins are suited for large-volume microbial manufacturing to yield billions of doses annually, minimizing their manufacturing cost. These types of vaccines are well-established, proven interventions with multiple safe and efficacious commercial examples. Many vaccine candidates of this type for SARS-CoV-2 rely on sequences containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates viral entry to cells via ACE2. Here we report an engineered sequence variant of RBD that exhibits high-yield manufacturability, high-affinity binding to ACE2, and enhanced immunogenicity after a single dose in mice compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 variant used in current vaccines. Antibodies raised against the engineered protein exhibited heterotypic binding to the RBD from two recently reported SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (501Y.V1/V2). Presentation of the engineered RBD on a designed virus-like particle (VLP) also reduced weight loss in hamsters upon viral challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Protein Engineering/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Saccharomycetales/metabolism , Vaccines, Subunit
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL