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iScience ; 25(10): 105040, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004160


COVID-19 has highly variable clinical courses. The search for prognostic host factors for COVID-19 outcome is a priority. We performed logistic regression for ICU admission against a polygenic score (PGS) for Cystatin C (CyC) production in patients with COVID-19. We analyzed the predictive value of longitudinal plasma CyC levels in an independent cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. In four cohorts spanning European and African ancestry populations, we identified a significant association between CyC-production PGS and odds of critical illness (n cases=2,319), with the strongest association captured in the UKB cohort (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.58-2.87, p=7.12e-7). Plasma proteomics from an independent cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n cases = 131) demonstrated that CyC production was associated with COVID-specific mortality (p=0.0007). Our findings suggest that CyC may be useful for stratification of patients and it has functional role in the host response to COVID-19.

Gut ; 71(5): 879-888, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685682


OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether famotidine improved inflammation and symptomatic recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04724720) enrolling symptomatic unvaccinated adult outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2021 and April 2021 from two US centres. Patients self-administered 80 mg famotidine (n=28) or placebo (n=27) orally three times a day for 14 consecutive days. Endpoints were time to (primary) or rate of (secondary) symptom resolution, and resolution of inflammation (exploratory). RESULTS: Of 55 patients in the intention-to-treat group (median age 35 years (IQR: 20); 35 women (64%); 18 African American (33%); 14 Hispanic (26%)), 52 (95%) completed the trial, submitting 1358 electronic symptom surveys. Time to symptom resolution was not statistically improved (p=0.4). Rate of symptom resolution was improved for patients taking famotidine (p<0.0001). Estimated 50% reduction of overall baseline symptom scores were achieved at 8.2 days (95% CI: 7 to 9.8 days) for famotidine and 11.4 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 12.6 days) for placebo treated patients. Differences were independent of patient sex, race or ethnicity. Five self-limiting adverse events occurred (famotidine, n=2 (40%); placebo, n=3 (60%)). On day 7, fewer patients on famotidine had detectable interferon alpha plasma levels (p=0.04). Plasma immunoglobulin type G levels to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid core protein were similar between both arms. CONCLUSIONS: Famotidine was safe and well tolerated in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Famotidine led to earlier resolution of symptoms and inflammation without reducing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Additional randomised trials are required.

COVID-19 , Famotidine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome