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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3334, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241659

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients at risk of severe disease may be treated with neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To minimise virus escape from neutralisation these are administered as combinations e.g. casirivimab+imdevimab or, for antibodies targeting relatively conserved regions, individually e.g. sotrovimab. Unprecedented genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK has enabled a genome-first approach to detect emerging drug resistance in Delta and Omicron cases treated with casirivimab+imdevimab and sotrovimab respectively. Mutations occur within the antibody epitopes and for casirivimab+imdevimab multiple mutations are present on contiguous raw reads, simultaneously affecting both components. Using surface plasmon resonance and pseudoviral neutralisation assays we demonstrate these mutations reduce or completely abrogate antibody affinity and neutralising activity, suggesting they are driven by immune evasion. In addition, we show that some mutations also reduce the neutralising activity of vaccine-induced serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Eur J Immunol ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241530

ABSTRACT

Replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad) vector and mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (LNP) constructs represent two modular vaccine platforms that have attracted substantial interest over the past two decades. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid development of multiple successful vaccines based on these technologies, there is now clear real-world evidence of the utility and efficacy of these platforms. Considerable optimization and refinement efforts underpin the successful application of these technologies. Despite this, our understanding of the specific pathways and processes engaged by these vaccines to stimulate the immune response remains incomplete. This review will synthesize our current knowledge of the specific mechanisms by which CD8+ T cell and antibody responses are induced by each of these vaccine platforms, and how this can be impacted by specific vaccine construction techniques. Key gaps in our knowledge are also highlighted, which can hopefully focus future studies.

3.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 23(5): 304-316, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317508

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing cross-reactive immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins in infection-naive subjects have been described by several studies. In particular, regions of high homology between SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronaviruses have been highlighted as a likely source of this cross-reactivity. However, the role of such cross-reactive responses in the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is currently unclear. Here, we review evidence regarding the impact of pre-existing humoral and T cell immune responses to outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of conserved coronavirus epitopes for the rational design of pan-coronavirus vaccines and consider cross-reactivity of immune responses to ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as their impact on COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
4.
Nat Med ; 29(5): 1146-1154, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320083

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and mortality. COVID-19 vaccines reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes; however, their effectiveness in people with obesity is incompletely understood. We studied the relationship among body mass index (BMI), hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19 among 3.6 million people in Scotland using the Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) surveillance platform. We found that vaccinated individuals with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) were 76% more likely to experience hospitalization or death from COVID-19 (adjusted rate ratio of 1.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60-1.94). We also conducted a prospective longitudinal study of a cohort of 28 individuals with severe obesity compared to 41 control individuals with normal BMI (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). We found that 55% of individuals with severe obesity had unquantifiable titers of neutralizing antibody against authentic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus compared to 12% of individuals with normal BMI (P = 0.0003) 6 months after their second vaccine dose. Furthermore, we observed that, for individuals with severe obesity, at any given anti-spike and anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody level, neutralizing capacity was lower than that of individuals with a normal BMI. Neutralizing capacity was restored by a third dose of vaccine but again declined more rapidly in people with severe obesity. We demonstrate that waning of COVID-19 vaccine-induced humoral immunity is accelerated in individuals with severe obesity. As obesity is associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from breakthrough infections, our findings have implications for vaccine prioritization policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/epidemiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316700

ABSTRACT

Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and seasonal human coronaviruses in oral fluid and plasma from 200 UK healthcare workers who were naïve (N=62) or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=138) using a pan-coronavirus multiplex binding immunoassay (Meso Scale Discovery®). Additionally, we investigated the impact of historical SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine-induced IgG, IgA and neutralizing responses in selected oral fluid samples before vaccination, after a first and second dose of BNT162b2, as well as following a third dose of mRNA vaccine or breakthrough infections using the same immunoassay and an ACE2 inhibition assay. Prior to vaccination, we found that spike-specific IgG levels in oral fluid positively correlated with IgG levels in plasma from previously-infected individuals (Spearman r=0.6858, p<0.0001) demonstrating that oral fluid could be used as a proxy for the presence of plasma SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, the sensitivity was lower in oral fluid (0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.91) than in plasma (0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Similar kinetics of mucosal and systemic spike-specific IgG levels were observed following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected individuals, respectively. In addition, a significant enhancement of OC43 and HKU1 spike-specific IgG levels was observed in previously-infected individuals following one vaccine dose in oral fluid (OC43 S: p<0.0001; HKU1 S: p=0.0423) suggesting cross-reactive IgG responses to seasonal beta coronaviruses. Mucosal spike-specific IgA responses were induced by mRNA vaccination particularly in previously-infected individuals (71%) but less frequently in naïve participants (23%). Neutralizing responses to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and variants of concerns were detected following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected participants, with likely contribution from both IgG and IgA in previously-infected individuals (correlations between neutralizing responses and IgG: Spearman r=0.5642, p<0.0001; IgA: Spearman r=0.4545, p=0.0001). We also observed that breakthrough infections or a third vaccine dose enhanced mucosal antibody levels and neutralizing responses. These data contribute to show that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection tailors the mucosal antibody profile induced by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Cell Rep ; 42(4): 112271, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257202

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, Omicron BA.1, containing a raft of new spike mutations, emerged and quickly spread globally. Intense selection pressure to escape the antibody response produced by vaccines or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection then led to a rapid succession of Omicron sub-lineages with waves of BA.2 and then BA.4/5 infection. Recently, many variants have emerged such as BQ.1 and XBB, which carry up to 8 additional receptor-binding domain (RBD) amino acid substitutions compared with BA.2. We describe a panel of 25 potent monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from vaccinees suffering BA.2 breakthrough infections. Epitope mapping shows potent mAb binding shifting to 3 clusters, 2 corresponding to early-pandemic binding hotspots. The RBD mutations in recent variants map close to these binding sites and knock out or severely knock down neutralization activity of all but 1 potent mAb. This recent mAb escape corresponds with large falls in neutralization titer of vaccine or BA.1, BA.2, or BA.4/5 immune serum.

8.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 212(3): 249-261, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264877

ABSTRACT

T cells are important in preventing severe disease from SARS-CoV-2, but scalable and field-adaptable alternatives to expert T-cell assays are needed. The interferon-gamma release assay QuantiFERON platform was developed to detect T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 from whole blood with relatively basic equipment and flexibility of processing timelines. Forty-eight participants with different infection and vaccination backgrounds were recruited. Whole blood samples were analysed using the QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 assay in parallel with the well-established 'Protective Immunity from T Cells in Healthcare workers' (PITCH) ELISpot, which can evaluate spike-specific T-cell responses. The primary aims of this cross-sectional observational cohort study were to establish if the QuantiFERON SARS-Co-V-2 assay could discern differences between specified groups and to assess the sensitivity of the assay compared with the PITCH ELISpot. The QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 distinguished acutely infected individuals (12-21 days post positive PCR) from naïve individuals (P < 0.0001) with 100% sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2 T cells, whilst the PITCH ELISpot had reduced sensitivity (62.5%) for the acute infection group. Sensitivity with QuantiFERON for previous infection was 12.5% (172-444 days post positive test) and was inferior to the PITCH ELISpot (75%). Although the QuantiFERON assay could discern differences between unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals (55-166 days since second vaccination), the latter also had reduced sensitivity (44.4%) compared to the PITCH ELISpot (66.6%). The QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 assay showed potential as a T- cell evaluation tool soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection but has lower sensitivity for use in reliable evaluation of vaccination or more distant infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
9.
Med (New York, NY) ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2272796

ABSTRACT

Background Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. However, the maintenance of such responses – and hence protection from disease – requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (Protective immunity from T cells in Healthcare workers (PITCH), within the larger SARS-CoV-2 immunity & reinfection evaluation (SIREN) study) we previously observed that prior infection impacted strongly on subsequent cellular and humoral immunity induced after long and short dosing intervals of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Methods Here, we report longer follow up of 684 HCWs in this cohort over 6-9 months following two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccination and up to 6 months following a subsequent mRNA booster vaccination. Findings We make three observations: Firstly, the dynamics of humoral and cellular responses differ;binding and neutralising antibodies declined whereas T and memory B cell responses were maintained after the second vaccine dose. Secondly, vaccine boosting restored IgG levels, broadened neutralising activity against variants of concern including omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5, and boosted T cell responses above the 6-month level post dose 2. Thirdly, prior infection maintained its impact driving larger and broader T cell responses compared with never-infected people – a feature maintained until 6 months after the third dose. Conclusions Broadly cross-reactive T cell responses are well maintained over time – especially in those with combined vaccine and infection-induced immunity ("hybrid” immunity) – and may contribute to continued protection against severe disease. Funding Department for Health and Social Care, Medical Research Council Graphical abstract Moore et al. studied antibody and cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccines before and after dose 3. Antibody responses waned, but T cell responses were well maintained. T cells recognised Omicron variants better and for longer than antibodies. Differences due to vaccine regimen and previous infection evened out over time.

10.
Cell reports ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2257201

ABSTRACT

In November 2021 Omicron BA.1, containing a raft of new spike mutations emerged and quickly spread globally. Intense selection pressure to escape the antibody response produced by vaccines or SARS-CoV-2 infection then led to a rapid succession of Omicron sub-lineages with waves of BA.2 then BA.4/5 infection. Recently, many variants have emerged such as BQ.1 and XBB, which carry up to 8 additional RBD amino-acid substitutions compared to BA.2. We describe a panel of 25 potent mAbs generated from vaccinees suffering BA.2 breakthrough infections. Epitope mapping shows potent mAb binding shifting to 3 clusters, 2 corresponding to early-pandemic binding hotspots. The RBD mutations in recent variants map close to these binding sites and knock out or severely knock down neutralization activity of all but 1 potent mAb. This recent mAb escape corresponds with large falls in neutralization titre of vaccine or BA.1, BA.2 or BA.4/5 immune serum. Graphical Dijokaite-Guraliuc et al. analyse potently neutralizing antibodies from vaccinated individuals with BA.2 breakthrough infections. The antibodies bind 3 sites on the receptor binding domain, 2 in common with early pandemic antibodies. Mutations in more recent variants map closely to these sites leading to reduced neutralization in all but one mAb.

11.
Wellcome Open Res ; 7: 173, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259676

ABSTRACT

Background: Marked reductions in serum iron concentrations are commonly induced during the acute phase of infection. This phenomenon, termed hypoferremia of inflammation, leads to inflammatory anemia, but could also have broader pathophysiological implications. In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypoferremia is associated with disease severity and poorer outcomes, although there are few reported cohorts. Methods: In this study, we leverage a well characterised prospective cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and perform a set of analyses focussing on iron and related biomarkers and both acute severity of COVID-19 and longer-term symptomatology. Results: We observed no associations between acute serum iron and long-term outcomes (including fatigue, breathlessness or quality of life); however, lower haemoglobin was associated with poorer quality of life. We also quantified iron homeostasis associated parameters, demonstrating that among 50 circulating mediators of inflammation IL-6 concentrations were strongly associated with serum iron, consistent with its central role in inflammatory control of iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, we observed no association between serum hepcidin and serum iron concentrations. We also observed elevated erythroferrone concentrations in COVID-19 patients with anaemia of inflammation. Conclusions: These results enhance our understanding of the regulation and pathophysiological consequences of disturbed iron homeostasis during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with HIV on antiretroviral therapy with good CD4 T cell counts make effective immune responses following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. There are few data on longer term responses and the impact of a booster dose. METHODS: Adults with HIV were enrolled into a single arm open label study. Two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 were followed twelve months later by a third heterologous vaccine dose. Participants had undetectable viraemia on ART and CD4 counts >350 cells/µl. Immune responses to the ancestral strain and variants of concern were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA, MesoScale Discovery (MSD) anti-spike platform, ACE-2 inhibition, Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. FINDINGS: 54 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. 43 received a third dose (42 with BNT162b2; 1 with mRNA-1273) one year after the first dose. After the third dose, total anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titres (MSD), ACE-2 inhibition and IgG ELISA results were significantly higher compared to Day 182 titres (P < 0.0001 for all three). SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses measured by AIM against SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 peptide pools were significantly increased after a third vaccine compared to 6 months after a first dose, with significant increases in proliferative CD4 + and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 after boosting. Responses to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants were boosted, although to a lesser extent for Omicron. CONCLUSIONS: In PWH receiving a third vaccine dose, there were significant increases in B and T cell immunity, including to known VOCs.

13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1092910, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231410

ABSTRACT

The factors determining whether infection will occur following exposure to SARS-CoV-2 remain elusive. Certain SARS-CoV-2-exposed individuals mount a specific T-cell response but fail to seroconvert, representing a population that may provide further clarity on the nature of infection susceptibility and correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2. Exposed seronegative individuals have been reported in patients exposed to the blood-borne pathogens Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis C virus and the sexually transmitted viruses Hepatitis B virus and Herpes Simplex virus. By comparing the quality of seronegative T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 with seronegative cellular immunity to these highly divergent viruses, common patterns emerge that offer insights on the role of cellular immunity against infection. For both SARS-CoV-2 and Hepatitis C, T-cell responses in exposed seronegatives are consistently higher than in unexposed individuals, but lower than in infected, seropositive patients. Durability of T-cell responses to Hepatitis C is dependent upon repeated exposure to antigen - single exposures do not generate long-lived memory T-cells. Finally, exposure to SARS-CoV-2 induces varying degrees of immune activation, suggesting that exposed seronegative individuals represent points on a spectrum rather than a discrete group. Together, these findings paint a complex landscape of the nature of infection but provide clues as to what may be protective early on in SARS-CoV-2 disease course. Further research on this phenomenon, particularly through cohort studies, is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Immunity, Cellular , Hepacivirus
14.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229145

ABSTRACT

Severe lung damage in COVID-19 involves complex interactions between diverse populations of immune and stromal cells. In this study, we used a spatial transcriptomics approach to delineate the cells, pathways and genes present across the spectrum of histopathological damage in COVID-19 lung tissue. We applied correlation network-based approaches to deconvolve gene expression data from 46 areas of interest covering >62,000 cells within well preserved lung samples from three patients. Despite substantial inter-patient heterogeneity, we discovered evidence for a common immune cell signaling circuit in areas of severe tissue that involves crosstalk between cytotoxic lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory macrophages. Expression of IFNG by cytotoxic lymphocytes was associated with induction of chemokines including CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 which are known to promote the recruitment of CXCR3+ immune cells. The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members BAFF (TNFSF13B) and TRAIL (TNFSF10) were found to be consistently upregulated in the areas with severe tissue damage. We used published spatial and single cell SARS-CoV-2 datasets to confirm our findings in the lung tissue from additional cohorts of COVID-19 patients. The resulting model of severe COVID-19 immune-mediated tissue pathology may inform future therapeutic strategies.

15.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 102, 2023 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212038

ABSTRACT

Protein acetylation plays a key role in regulating cellular processes and is subject to aberrant control in diverse pathologies. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are approved drugs for certain cancers, it is not known whether they can be deployed in other therapeutic contexts. We have explored the clinical HDAC inhibitor, zabadinostat/CXD101, and found that it is a stand-alone regulator of the adaptive immune response. Zabadinostat treatment increased expression of MHC class I and II genes in a variety of cells, including dendritic cells (DCs) and healthy tissue. Remarkably, zabadinostat enhanced the activity of DCs, and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Using an antigenic peptide presented to the immune system by MHC class I, zabadinostat caused an increase in antigen-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. Further, mice immunised with covid19 spike protein and treated with zabadinostat exhibit enhanced covid19 neutralising antibodies and an increased level of T lymphocytes. The enhanced humoral response reflected increased activity of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and germinal centre (GC) B cells. Our results argue strongly that zabadinostat has potential to augment diverse therapeutic agents that act through the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Animals , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adaptive Immunity , Antigens
16.
Cell Rep ; 42(1): 111903, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158574

ABSTRACT

Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have caused successive global waves of infection. These variants, with multiple mutations in the spike protein, are thought to facilitate escape from natural and vaccine-induced immunity and often increase in affinity for ACE2. The latest variant to cause concern is BA.2.75, identified in India where it is now the dominant strain, with evidence of wider dissemination. BA.2.75 is derived from BA.2 and contains four additional mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Here, we perform an antigenic and biophysical characterization of BA.2.75, revealing an interesting balance between humoral evasion and ACE2 receptor affinity. ACE2 affinity for BA.2.75 is increased 9-fold compared with BA.2; there is also evidence of escape of BA.2.75 from immune serum, particularly that induced by Delta infection, which may explain the rapid spread in India, where where there is a high background of Delta infection. ACE2 affinity appears to be prioritized over greater escape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies
17.
Semin Immunol ; 61-64: 101661, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086731

ABSTRACT

MAIT cells are one representative of a group of related unconventional or pre-set T cells, and are particularly abundant in humans. While these unconventional T cell types, which also include populations of Vδ2 cells and iNKT cells, recognise quite distinct ligands, they share functional features including the ability to sense "danger" by integration of cytokine signals. Since such signals are common to many human pathologies, activation of MAIT cells in particular has been widely observed. In this review we will discuss recent trends in these data, for example the findings from patients with Covid-19 and responses to novel vaccines. Covid-19 is an example where MAIT cell activation has been correlated with disease severity by several groups, and the pathways leading to activation are being clarified, but the overall role of the cells in vivo requires further exploration. Given the potential wide functional responsiveness of these cells, which ranges from tissue repair to cytotoxicity, and likely impacts on the activity of many other cell populations, defining the role of these cells - not only as sensitive biomarkers but also as mediators - across human disease remains an important task.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065516

ABSTRACT

Background: Individuals with primary and secondary immunodeficiency (PID/SID) were shown to be at risk of poor outcomes during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines demonstrate reduced immunogenicity in these patients. Objectives: To understand whether the risk of severe COVID-19 in individuals with PID or SID has changed following the deployment of vaccination and therapeutics in the context of the emergence of novel viral variants of concern. Methods: The outcomes of two cohorts of patients with PID and SID were compared: the first, infected between March and July 2020, prior to vaccination and treatments, the second after these intervention became available between January 2021 and April 2022. Results: 22.7% of immunodeficient patients have been infected at least once with SARS-CoV-2 since the start of the pandemic, compared to over 70% of the general population. Immunodeficient patients were typically infected later in the pandemic when the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant was dominant. This delay was associated with receipt of more vaccine doses and higher pre-infection seroprevalence. Compared to March-July 2020, hospitalization rates (53.3% vs 17.9%, p<0.0001) and mortality (Infection fatality rate 20.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.0003) have significantly reduced for patients with PID but remain elevated compared to the general population. The presence of a serological response to vaccination was associated with a reduced duration of viral detection by PCR in the nasopharynx. Early outpatient treatment with antivirals or monoclonal antibodies reduced hospitalization during the Omicron wave. Conclusions: Most individuals with immunodeficiency in the United Kingdom remain SARS-CoV-2 infection naïve. Vaccination, widespread availability of outpatient treatments and, possibly, the emergence of the B.1.1.529 variant have led to significant improvements in morbidity and mortality followings SARS-CoV-2 infection since the start of the pandemic. However, individuals with PID and SID remain at significantly increased risk of poor outcomes compared to the general population; mitigation, vaccination and treatment strategies must be optimized to minimize the ongoing burden of the pandemic in these vulnerable cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sudden Infant Death , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
19.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046031

ABSTRACT

Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and seasonal human coronaviruses in oral fluid and plasma from 200 UK healthcare workers who were naïve (N=62) or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=138) using a pan-coronavirus multiplex binding immunoassay (Meso Scale Discovery®). Additionally, we investigated the impact of historical SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine-induced IgG, IgA and neutralizing responses in selected oral fluid samples before vaccination, after a first and second dose of BNT162b2, as well as following a third dose of mRNA vaccine or breakthrough infections using the same immunoassay and an ACE2 inhibition assay. Prior to vaccination, we found that spike-specific IgG levels in oral fluid positively correlated with IgG levels in plasma from previously-infected individuals (Spearman r=0.6858, p<0.0001) demonstrating that oral fluid could be used as a proxy for the presence of plasma SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, the sensitivity was lower in oral fluid (0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.91) than in plasma (0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Similar kinetics of mucosal and systemic spike-specific IgG levels were observed following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected individuals, respectively. In addition, a significant enhancement of OC43 and HKU1 spike-specific IgG levels was observed in previously-infected individuals following one vaccine dose in oral fluid (OC43 S: p<0.0001;HKU1 S: p=0.0423) suggesting cross-reactive IgG responses to seasonal beta coronaviruses. Mucosal spike-specific IgA responses were induced by mRNA vaccination particularly in previously-infected individuals (71%) but less frequently in naïve participants (23%). Neutralizing responses to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and variants of concerns were detected following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected participants, with likely contribution from both IgG and IgA in previously-infected individuals (correlations between neutralizing responses and IgG: Spearman r=0.5642, p<0.0001;IgA: Spearman r=0.4545, p=0.0001). We also observed that breakthrough infections or a third vaccine dose enhanced mucosal antibody levels and neutralizing responses. These data contribute to show that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection tailors the mucosal antibody profile induced by vaccination.

20.
Wellcome open research ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1980498

ABSTRACT

Background: Marked reductions in serum iron concentrations are commonly induced during the acute phase of infection. This phenomenon, termed hypoferremia of inflammation, leads to inflammatory anemia, but could also have broader pathophysiological implications. In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypoferremia is associated with disease severity and poorer outcomes, although there are few reported cohorts. Methods: In this study, we leverage a well characterised prospective cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and perform a set of analyses focussing on iron and related biomarkers and both acute severity of COVID-19 and longer-term symptomatology. Results: We observed no associations between acute serum iron and long-term outcomes (including fatigue, breathlessness or quality of life);however, lower haemoglobin was associated with poorer quality of life. We also quantified iron homeostasis associated parameters, demonstrating that among 50 circulating mediators of inflammation IL-6 concentrations were strongly associated with serum iron, consistent with its central role in inflammatory control of iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, we observed no association between serum hepcidin and serum iron concentrations. We also observed elevated erythroferrone concentrations in COVID-19 patients with anaemia of inflammation. Conclusions: These results enhance our understanding of the regulation and pathophysiological consequences of disturbed iron homeostasis during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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