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1.
Maturitas ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1531644

ABSTRACT

The severity and mortality rate of COVID-19 differ between the sexes. Several biopsychosocial determinants may account for the better outcomes in women. The notion that sex steroid hormones account for the gender disparity is reasonable but not proven;the same is true of the role of menopause as a risk factor. A retrospective analysis of patients (=1764) hospitalized in Italy showed a higher mortality (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.30-1.91, adjusted for age and multi-comorbidities) in males only after the age of 65 (the rate is twice as high in the 65-79-year age group and 1.5-fold higher in those aged over 80). The higher mortality of men is mostly evident among those aged over 65 years, long after the average age of menopause.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 199-202, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection induced by SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibody positivity resulting from natural infection was evaluated. METHODS: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection (as determined by virus RNA detection) was evaluated in a group of 1,460 seropositive and a control group of 8,150 seronegative healthcare workers in three Centres of Northern Italy in the period June-November 2020. Neutralizing serum titers were analyzed in seropositive subjects with or without secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: During the 6-month survey, 1.78% seropositive subjects developed secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection while 6.63% seronegative controls developed primary infection (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.38). Secondary infection was associated with low or absent serum neutralizing titer (p<0.01) and was mildly symptomatic in 45.8% cases vs 71.4% symptomatic primary infections (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Immunity from natural infection appears protective from secondary infection; therefore, vaccination of seronegative subjects might be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: New-onset olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) represents a well-acknowledged COVID-19 red flag. Nevertheless, its clinical, virological and serological features are still a matter of debate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cohort study, 170 consecutive subjects with new-onset OGD were consecutively recruited. Otolaryngological examination, OGD subjective grading, nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and serum samples (SS) collection for SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification were conducted at baseline and after one (T1), two (T2) and four weeks (T3). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 79% of patients. Specifically, 43% of positive patients were detected only by SS analysis. The OGD was the only clinical complaint in 10% of cases. Concurrent sinonasal symptoms were reported by 45% of patients. Subjective improvement at T3 was reported by 97% of patients, with 40% recovering completely. Hormonal disorders and RNA detectability in NS were the only variables associated with OGD severity. Recovery rate was higher in case of seasonal influenza vaccination, lower in patients with systemic involvement and severe OGD. Not RNA levels nor IgG titers were correlated with recovery. CONCLUSION: Clinical, virological and serological features of COVID-19 related OGD were monitored longitudinally, offering valuable hints for future research on the relationship between host characteristics and chemosensory dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the association between the parameters used in nutritional screening assessment (body mass index [BMI], unintentional weight loss [WL] and reduced food intake) and clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter real-life study carried out during the first pandemic wave in 11 Italian Hospitals. In total, 1391 patients were included. The primary end-point was a composite of in-hospital mortality or admission to ICU, whichever came first. The key secondary end-point was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Multivariable models were based on 1183 patients with complete data. Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was found to have a negative prognostic impact for both the primary and secondary end-point (P < .001 for both). No association with BMI and WL was observed. Other predictors of outcomes were age and presence of multiple comorbidities. A significant interaction between obesity and multi-morbidity (≥2) was detected. Obesity was found to be a risk factor for composite end-point (HR = 1.36 [95%CI, 1.03-1.80]; P = .031) and a protective factor against in-hospital mortality (HR = 0.32 [95%CI, 0.20-0.51]; P < .001) in patients with and without multiple comorbidities, respectively. Secondary analysis (patients, N = 829), further adjusted for high C-reactive protein (>21 mg/dL) and LDH (>430 mU/mL) levels yielded consistent findings. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced self-reported food intake before hospitalization and/or expected by physicians in the next days since admission was associated with negative clinical outcomes in non-critically ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This simple and easily obtainable parameter may be useful to identify patients at highest risk of poor prognosis, who may benefit from prompt nutritional support. The presence of comorbidities could be the key factor, which may determine the protective or harmful role of a high body mass index in COVID-19.

6.
Resusc Plus ; 6: 100105, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117614

ABSTRACT

Aims: Many countries reported an increase of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) and mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, all these data refer to regional settings and national data are still missing. We aimed to assess the OHCA incidence and population mortality during COVID-19 pandemic in whole Switzerland and in the different regions (Cantons) according to the infection rate. Methods: We considered OHCAs and deaths which occurred in Switzerland after the first diagnosed case of COVID-19 (February 25th) and for the subsequent 65 days and in the same period in 2019. We also compared Cantons with high versus low COVID-19 incidence. Results: A 2.4% reduction in OHCA cases was observed in Switzerland. The reduction was particularly high (-21.4%) in high-incidence COVID-19 cantons, whilst OHCAs increased by 7.7% in low-incidence COVID-19 cantons. Mortality increased by 8.6% in the entire nation: a 27.8% increase in high-incidence cantons and a slight decrease (-0.7%) in low-incidence cantons was observed. The OHCA occurred more frequently at home, CPR and AED use by bystander were less frequent during the pandemic. Conversely, the OHCAs percentage in which a first responder was present, initiated the CPR and used an AED, increased. The outcome of patients in COVID-19 high-incidence cantons was worse compared to low-incidence cantons. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland mortality increased in Cantons with high-incidence of infection, whilst not in the low-incidence ones. OHCA occurrence followed an opposite trend showing how variables related to the health-system and EMS organization deeply influence OHCA occurrence during a pandemic.

7.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m2) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.

8.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1721-1726, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024117

ABSTRACT

Global pandemics call for large and diverse healthcare data to study various risk factors, treatment options, and disease progression patterns. Despite the enormous efforts of many large data consortium initiatives, scientific community still lacks a secure and privacy-preserving infrastructure to support auditable data sharing and facilitate automated and legally compliant federated analysis on an international scale. Existing health informatics systems do not incorporate the latest progress in modern security and federated machine learning algorithms, which are poised to offer solutions. An international group of passionate researchers came together with a joint mission to solve the problem with our finest models and tools. The SCOR Consortium has developed a ready-to-deploy secure infrastructure using world-class privacy and security technologies to reconcile the privacy/utility conflicts. We hope our effort will make a change and accelerate research in future pandemics with broad and diverse samples on an international scale.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Computer Security , Coronavirus Infections , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Privacy , COVID-19 , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Internationality , Machine Learning
10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 290, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: The study was conducted in the arthritis outpatient clinic at two large academic hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (fever and/or cough and/or dyspnea), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25 February to 20 April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 development was evaluated. RESULTS: The study population included 2050 adults with chronic inflammatory arthritis receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs, age, sex, and comorbidities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered. Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Arthritis/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Arthritis/diagnosis , Arthritis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14516, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917741

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been an open debate on the impact of biological drugs used in the treatment of psoriasis. To define whether patients under treatment with biologics suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19, compared to psoriatic patients treated only with topical drugs, we designed an observational monocentric prevalence study recording the personal and clinical data of psoriatic patients, with focus on the presentation of signs and symptoms related to COVID-19 in the period of time ranging from 1 January 2020 to 31 May 2020. A total of 180 patients were enrolled into two groups: 100 patients in the topical therapy group and 80 patients in the biological therapy group. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and symptoms at a bivariable analysis with adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, psoriatic patients under treatment with biologics do not seem to be more susceptible to COVID-19 compared to other psoriatic patients and we suggest not interrupting treatment with biological drugs, even in areas suffering from active outbreaks of the disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Psoriasis/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(8): 1627-1635, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can generate severe pneumonia associated with high mortality. A bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) examination has been shown to have a potential role in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential prognostic value of a new LUS protocol (evaluation of 14 anatomic landmarks, with graded scores of 0-3) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and the association of LUS patterns with clinical or laboratory findings. METHODS: A cohort of 52 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 underwent LUS examinations on admission in an internal medicine ward and before their discharge. A total LUS score as the sum of the scores at each explored area was computed. We investigated the association between the LUS score and clinical worsening, defined as a combination of high-flow oxygen support, intensive care unit admission, or 30-day mortality as the primary end point. RESULTS: Twenty (39%) patients showed a worse outcome during the observation period; the mean LUS scores ± SDs were 20.4 ± 8.5 and 29.2 ± 7.3 in patients without and with worsening, respectively (P < .001). In a multivariable analysis, adjusted for comorbidities (>2), age (>65 years), sex (male), and body mass index (≥25 kg/m2 ), the association between the LUS score and worsening (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.29; P = .003) was confirmed, with good discrimination of the model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). A median LUS score higher than 24 was associated with an almost 6-fold increase in the odds of worsening (odds ratio, 5.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 24.8; P = .021). CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasound can represent an effective tool for monitoring and stratifying the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2469-2472, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Great interest has been raised by the possible protective role of vitamin D in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but objective data on 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not conclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian referral hospital and explore its association with clinical outcomes and the markers of disease severity. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study, 129 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an Italian referral center were enrolled from March to April 2020. 25(OH)Vitamin D serum levels were assessed 48 h since hospital admission and categorized into: normal (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (<30 - ≥20 ng/mL), moderately deficient (<20 - ≥10 ng/mL), severely deficient (<10 ng/mL). RESULTS: The prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D insufficiency, moderate deficiency and severe deficiency was 13.2%, 22.5% and 54.3%, respectively. 25(OH)Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was not associated with COVID-19 clinical features and outcomes. Unexpectedly, after adjusting for major confounders, a significant positive association between increasing 25(OH)vitamin D levels and in-hospital mortality (on a continuous logarithmic scale, odds ratio = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.11 to 2.69]; P = .016) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Very low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were highly prevalent and suggestive of deficiency among our hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients, but low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were not associated with outcome variables. Whether 25(OH)vitamin D adequacy may influence clinical outcomes in COVID-19 and the unexpected correlation between higher 25(OH)vitamin D levels and mortality require further investigations by large intervention trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers , Vitamin D/blood
14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(3): 604-612, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872685

ABSTRACT

The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host immunity is poorly understood. We performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in 32 patients with severe COVID-19, some of whom succumbed. A control population of healthy subjects was included. Patients with COVID-19 had an altered distribution of peripheral blood lymphocytes, with an increased proportion of mature natural killer (NK) cells and low T-cell numbers. NK cells and CD8+ T cells overexpressed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and CD69. NK cell exhaustion was attested by increased frequencies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) positive cells and reduced frequencies of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-, DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1)- and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7)-expressing NK cells, associated with a reduced ability to secrete interferon (IFN)γ. Patients with poor outcome showed a contraction of immature CD56bright and an expansion of mature CD57+ FcεRIγneg adaptive NK cells compared to survivors. Increased serum levels of IL-6 were also more frequently identified in deceased patients compared to survivors. Of note, monocytes secreted abundant quantities of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß which persisted at lower levels several weeks after recovery with concomitant normalization of CD69, PD-1 and TIM-3 expression and restoration of CD8+ T cell numbers. A hyperactivated/exhausted immune response dominate in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably driven by an uncontrolled secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients that will help to design effective stage-specific treatments for this potentially deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Haematologica ; 105(12): 2834-2840, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676584

ABSTRACT

Hyperimmune plasma from Covid-19 convalescent is a potential treatment for severe Covid-19. We conducted a multicenter one arm proof of concept interventional study. Patients with Covid-19 disease with moderate-to-severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, elevated C-reactive Protein and need for mechanical ventilation and/or CPAP were enrolled. One to three 250-300 ml unit of hyperimmune plasma (neutralizing antibodies titer ≥1:160) were administered. Primary outcome was 7-days hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were PaO2/FiO2, laboratory and radiologic changes, as well as weaning from mechanical ventilation and safety. The study observed 46 patients from March, 25 to April, 21 2020. Patients were aged 63, 61% male, of them, 30 were on CPAP and 7 intubated. PaO2/FiO2 was 128 (SD 47). Bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray was present in 36 patients (84%). Symptoms and ARDS duration were 14 (SD 7) and 6 days (SD 3). Three patients (6.5%) died within 7 days as compared to an expected 15% from the National Statistics and 30% from a small concurrent cohort of 23 patients. The upper one-sided 90%CI was 13.9%, allowing to reject the null hypothesis of a 15% mortality. PaO2/FiO2 increased by 112 units (95%CI 82 to142) in survivors, the chest radiogram severity decreased in 23% (95%CI 5% to 42%); CRP, Ferritin and LDH decreased by 60, 36 and 20% respectively. Weaning from CPAP was obtained in 26/30 patients and 3/7 were extubated. Five serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (2 likely, 2 possible treatment related). In conclusion, Hyperimmune plasma in Covid-19 shows promising benefits, to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. This proof of concept study could open to future developments including hyperimmune plasma banking, development of standardized pharmaceutical products and monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality/trends , Immunization, Passive/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1399-1407, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639375

ABSTRACT

Little is known regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical spectrum in non-Asian populations. We herein describe the impact of COVID-19 on liver function in 100 COVID-19 consecutive patients (median age 70 years, range 25-97; 79 males) who were admitted to our internal medicine unit in March 2020. We retrospectively assessed liver function tests, taking into account demographic characteristics and clinical outcome. A patient was considered as having liver injury when alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was > 50 mU/ml, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) > 50 mU/ml, or total bilirubin > 1.1 mg/dl. Spearman correlation coefficient for laboratory data and bivariable analysis for mortality and/or need for intensive care were assessed. A minority of patients (18.6%) were obese, and most patients were non- or moderate-drinkers (88.5%). Liver function tests were altered in 62.4% of patients, and improved during follow-up. None of the seven patients with known chronic liver disease had liver decompensation. Only one patient developed acute liver failure. In patients with altered liver function tests, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was associated with greater mortality and need for intensive care (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.07-5.11, p = 0.033). To conclude, a high prevalence of altered liver function tests was noticed in Italian patients with COVID-19, and this was associated with worse outcomes when developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Failure/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internal Medicine/methods , Internal Medicine/trends , Italy/epidemiology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(32): 3045-3054, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607826

ABSTRACT

AIMS: An increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) incidence has been reported in the very early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, but a clear demonstration of a correlation between the increased incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 is missing so far. We aimed to verify whether there is an association between the OHCA difference compared with 2019 and the COVID-19 epidemic curve. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all the consecutive OHCAs which occurred in the Provinces of Lodi, Cremona, Pavia, and Mantova in the 2 months following the first documented case of COVID-19 in the Lombardia Region and compared them with those which occurred in the same time frame in 2019. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 from 21 February to 20 April 2020 in the study territory was 956 COVID-19/100 000 inhabitants and the cumulative incidence of OHCA was 21 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with a 52% increase as compared with 2019 (490 OHCAs in 2020 vs. 321 in 2019). A strong and statistically significant correlation was found between the difference in cumulative incidence of OHCA between 2020 and 2019 per 100 000 inhabitants and the COVID-19 cumulative incidence per 100 000 inhabitants both for the overall territory (ρ 0.87, P < 0.001) and for each province separately (Lodi: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Cremona: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Pavia: ρ 0.87, P < 0.001; Mantova: ρ 0.81, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increase in OHCAs in 2020 is significantly correlated to the COVID-19 pandemic and is coupled with a reduction in short-term outcome. Government and local health authorities should seriously consider our results when planning healthcare strategies to face the epidemic, especially considering the expected recurrent outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(5): 819-824, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401378

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, a new coronavirus strain has been reported in the Chinese province of Wuhan, indicated as 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2. In February 2020, the first case of transmission on Italian soil was reported. On March 09, 2020, at the time of protocol design, the Italian Ministry of Health reported 10,149 people who had contracted the virus; of these, 8514 were positive, of which 5038 were hospitalized with symptoms (59.2%) and 877 in intensive care (10.3%), while the remaining 2599 were in home isolation; 631 were deceased (6.2%) and 1004 healed (9.9%). To date there are no studies in the literature that demonstrate its feasibility and efficacy in the context of the worldwide SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Based upon the little existing evidence, we planned to assess the efficacy of the infusion of hyperimmune plasma in COVID-19 patients in a one-arm proof-of-concept clinical trial. The primary objective of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of the administration of plasma taken from convalescent donors of COVID-19 to critically ill patients with COVID-19 in terms of their survival. Death from any cause will be considered. The main limit of this study is its one-arm proof-of-concept design with only 43 patients enrolled. However, in the absence of previous evidence, larger and/or randomized trials did not appear to be ethically acceptable. Moreover, the results from this study, if encouraging, will allow us to plan further informed large clinical trials. Trial registration: NCT04321421 March 23, 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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