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Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(6): 722-731, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275247


BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis, a rare fungal infection, has shown an increase in the number of reported cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive insight into the characteristics of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Demographic information and clinical features were documented for each patient. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk of mortality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, and FungiSCOPE. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting individual-level information in patients with adult COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) between 1 January 2020 and 28 December 2022. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who developed mucormycosis during or after COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with and without individual clinical variables were compared. ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Quality assessment was performed based on the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for case series studies. RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty-eight individual cases reported from 45 countries were eligible. 88.1% (844/958) were reported from low- or middle-income countries. Corticosteroid use for COVID-19 (78.5%, 619/789) and diabetes (77.9%, 738/948) were common. Diabetic ketoacidosis (p < 0.001), history of malignancy (p < 0.001), underlying pulmonary (p 0.017), or renal disease (p < 0.001), obesity (p < 0.001), hypertension (p 0.040), age (>65 years) (p 0.001), Aspergillus coinfection (p 0.037), and tocilizumab use during COVID-19 (p 0.018) increased the mortality. CAM occurred on an average of 22 days after COVID-19 and 8 days after hospitalization. Diagnosis of mucormycosis in patients with Aspergillus coinfection and pulmonary mucormycosis was made on average 15.4 days (range, 0-35 days) and 14.0 days (range, 0-53 days) after hospitalization, respectively. Cutaneous mucormycosis accounted for <1% of the cases. The overall mortality rate was 38.9% (303/780). CONCLUSION: Mortality of CAM was high, and most reports were from low- or middle-income countries. We detected novel risk factors for CAM, such as older age, specific comorbidities, Aspergillus coinfection, and tocilizumab use, in addition to the previously identified factors.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mucormycosis , Adult , Humans , Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 168, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468074


BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are at high risk of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes may improve clinical management in these patients. We therefore studied baseline characteristics of HM patients developing COVID-19 and analyzed predictors of mortality. METHODS: The survey was supported by the Scientific Working Group Infection in Hematology of the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible for the analysis were adult patients with HM and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 observed between March and December 2020. RESULTS: The study sample includes 3801 cases, represented by lymphoproliferative (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma n = 1084, myeloma n = 684 and chronic lymphoid leukemia n = 474) and myeloproliferative malignancies (mainly acute myeloid leukemia n = 497 and myelodysplastic syndromes n = 279). Severe/critical COVID-19 was observed in 63.8% of patients (n = 2425). Overall, 2778 (73.1%) of the patients were hospitalized, 689 (18.1%) of whom were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Overall, 1185 patients (31.2%) died. The primary cause of death was COVID-19 in 688 patients (58.1%), HM in 173 patients (14.6%), and a combination of both COVID-19 and progressing HM in 155 patients (13.1%). Highest mortality was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (199/497, 40%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (118/279, 42.3%). The mortality rate significantly decreased between the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) (581/1427, 40.7% vs. 439/1773, 24.8%, p value < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, age, active malignancy, chronic cardiac disease, liver disease, renal impairment, smoking history, and ICU stay correlated with mortality. Acute myeloid leukemia was a higher mortality risk than lymphoproliferative diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms that COVID-19 patients with HM are at high risk of lethal complications. However, improved COVID-19 prevention has reduced mortality despite an increase in the number of reported cases.

COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult