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1.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:971-972, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009130

ABSTRACT

Background: Enpatoran is a selective and potent dual toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 inhibitor in development for the treatment of cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (CLE/SLE). Enpatoran inhibits TLR7/8 activation in vitro and suppresses disease activity in lupus mouse models.1 Enpatoran was well tolerated and had linear pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in healthy volunteers.2 As TLR7/8 mediate immune responses to single-stranded RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, it was postulated that enpatoran may prevent hyperinfammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19. Objectives: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an exploratory Phase II trial to assess safety and determine whether enpatoran prevents clinical deterioration in patients (pts) hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. PK and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enpatoran were also evaluated. Methods: ANEMONE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-con-trolled study conducted in Brazil, the Philippines, and the USA (NCT04448756). Pts aged 18-75 years, hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia (WHO 9-point scale score =4) but not mechanically ventilated, with SpO2 <94% and PaO2/FiO2 ≥150 (FiO2 maximum 0.4) were eligible. Those with a history of uncontrolled illness, active/unstable cardiovascular disease and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were excluded. Pts received PBO or enpatoran (50 or 100 mg twice daily [BID]) for 14 days, with monitoring to Day 28 and safety follow-up to Day 60. Primary outcomes were safety and time to recovery (WHO 9-point scale ≤3). Clinical deterioration (time to clinical status >4, WHO 9-point scale) was a secondary outcome. Exploratory endpoints were enpatoran and biomarker concentrations (cytokines, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer and interferon gene signature [IFN-GS] scores) assessed over time. Results: 149 pts received either PBO (n=49), or enpatoran 50 mg (n=54) or 100 mg (n=46) BID;88% completed treatment and 86% received concomitant steroids. Median age was 50 years (77% <60 years old), 66% were male, and 50% had ≥1 comorbidity (40% hypertension, 24% diabetes). Overall, 59% pts reported a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) with three non-treatment-related deaths;11% reported a treatment-related TEAE. The proportion of pts in the enpatoran group reporting serious TEAEs was low (50 mg BID 9%;100 mg BID 2%) vs PBO (18%). Gastrointestinal disorders were most common (PBO 8%;50 mg BID 28%;100 mg BID 9%). The primary outcome of time to recovery with enpatoran vs PBO was not met;medians were 3.4-3.9 days. A positive signal in time to clinical deterioration from Day 1 through Day 28 was observed;hazard ratios [95% CI] for enpatoran vs PBO were 0.39 [0.13, 1.15] (50 mg BID) and 0.30 [0.08, 1.08] (100 mg BID). Mean enpatoran exposure was dose-proportional, and PK properties were within expectations. The median (quartile [Q]1-Q3) interleukin 6 (IL-6), CRP and D-dimer baseline concentration across the groups were 5.7 (4.0-13.5) pg/mL, 30.04 (11.40-98.02) and 0.62 (0.39-1.01) mg/L, respectively. Baseline IFN-GS scores were similar across groups. Conclusion: The ANEMONE trial was the frst to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a TLR7/8 inhibitor in an infectious disease for preventing cytokine storm. Enpa-toran up to 100 mg BID for 14 days was well tolerated by patients acutely ill with COVID-19 pneumonia. Time to recovery was not improved with enpatoran, perhaps due to the younger age of patients who had fewer comorbidities compared to those in similar COVID-19 trials. However, there was less likelihood for clinical deterioration with enpatoran than placebo. This trial provides important safety, tolerability, PK and PD data supporting continued development of enpatoran in SLE and CLE (NCT04647708, NCT05162586).

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S360-S361, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746479

ABSTRACT

Background. Enpatoran, formerly known as M5049, is a potential first-in-class small molecule antagonist of toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, which may prevent viral-associated hyperinflammatory response and progression to 'cytokine storm' in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The objective of this study was to leverage existing population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (popPK/PD) models for enpatoran to inform dose selection for an accelerated Phase II study in COVID-19 patients with pneumonia. Methods. The popPK/PD models were based on plasma PK and PD biomarker (ex vivo-stimulated interleukin [IL]6 and interferon α [IFNα] secretion) data from the enpatoran first-in-human Phase I study in healthy participants (Port A, et al. Lupus Sci Med 2020;7(Suppl. 1): P135). A two-compartment model describing PK used a sigmoidal Emax model with proportional decrease from baseline characterizing the PD response across the investigated single and multiple daily dose range of 1-200 mg (N=72). Concentrations that inhibited 50% and 90% (IC50/IC90) of cytokine secretion were estimated and stochastic simulations were performed to assess target coverage under different dosing regimens. Results. Simulations suggested that, to achieve maximal inhibition of IL-6 over time, enpatoran PK concentrations would be maintained above the IC90 throughout the dosing interval with doses of 100 mg and 50 mg twice daily in 90% and 30% of participants, respectively. In comparison, IFNα inhibition was predicted to be lower, with IC90 coverage in 60% and 8% of participants with twice daily doses of 100 mg and 50 mg enpatoran, respectively. Conclusion. Utilization of existing popPK/PD models allowed for the accelerated development of enpatoran in COVID-19 to address an unprecedented global pandemic. Rational model-informed dose selection was supported by data from a Phase I study in which there were no safety concerns.

3.
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics ; 109:S20-S20, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1136775
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